We examined the role of non-judgmental acceptance in the relation between posttraumatic stress symptom severity and marijuana use coping motives. These relations were examined among 97 (46 women) adults (M age = 21.57 years, SD = 6.32) who met DSM-IV-defined PTSD Criterion A for at least one traumatic event exposure and reported using marijuana in the past 30 days. Consistent with expectation, greater levels of posttraumatic stress symptom severity were associated with greater levels of coping-oriented marijuana use motives, as well as lower levels of non-judgmental acceptance. Furthermore, non-judgmental acceptance was inversely associated with coping-oriented marijuana use motives. Finally, non-judgmental acceptance was found to partially mediate the association between posttraumatic stress symptom severity and marijuana use coping motives. Results are discussed in terms of better understanding the role of non-judgmental acceptance in coping-oriented marijuana use among trauma-exposed populations.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Alterman, A., Koppenhaver, J., Mulholland, E., Ladden, L., & Baime, M. (2004). Pilot trial of effectiveness of mindfulness meditation for substance abuse patients. Journal of Substance Use, 9(6), 259–268.
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.), text revision. Washington, D.C: American Psychiatric Association.
Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., & Allen, K. B. (2004). Assessment of mindfulness by self-report: the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills. Assessment, 11, 191–203.
Baer, R. A., Smith, T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13, 27–45.
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173–1182.
Bien, T. (2009). Paradise lost: Mindfulness and addictive behavior. In F. Didonna (Ed.), Clinical handbook of mindfulness (pp. 289–297). New York, NY: Springer.
Bishop, S. R., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Anderson, N. D., Carmody, J., et al. (2004). Mindfulness: A proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11, 230–241.
Block-Lerner, J., Salters-Pedneault, K., & Tull, M. T. (2005). Assessing mindfulness and experiential avoidance. In S. R. Orsillo & L. Roemer (Eds.), Acceptance and mindfulness-based approaches to anxiety (pp. 71–99). New York, NY: Springer.
Bonn-Miller, M. O., & Zvolensky, M. J. (2009). An evaluation of the nature of marijuana use and its motives among young adult active users. The American Journal on Addictions, 18, 409–416.
Bonn-Miller, M. O., Vujanovic, A. A., Feldner, M. T., Bernstein, A., & Zvolensky, M. J. (2007). Posttraumatic stress symptom severity predicts marijuana use coping motives among traumatic event-exposed marijuana users. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 20(4), 577–586.
Bonn-Miller, M. O., Zvolensky, M. J., Bernstein, A., & Stickle, T. R. (2008). Marijuana coping motives interact with marijuana use frequency to predict anxious arousal, panic related catastrophic thinking, and worry among current marijuana users. Depression and Anxiety, 25, 862–873.
Bowen, S., & Marlatt, G. A. (2009). Surfing the urge: Brief mindfulness-based intervention for college student smokers. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 23(4), 666–671.
Bowen, S., Witkiewitz, K., Dillworth, T. M., Chawla, N., Simpson, T. L., Ostafin, B. D., et al. (2006). Mindfulness meditation and substance use in an incarcerated population. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 20(3), 343–347.
Bremner, J. D., Southwick, S. M., Darnell, A., & Charney, D. S. (1996). Chronic PTSD in Vietnam combat veterans: course of illness and substance abuse. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 153(3), 369–375.
Budney, A. J., Moore, B. A., Vandrey, R., & Hughes, J. R. (2003). The time course and significance of cannabis withdrawal. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112(3), 393–402.
Chabrol, H., Ducongé, E., Casas, C., Roura, C., & Carey, K. B. (2005). Relations between cannabis use and dependence, motives for cannabis use and anxious, depressive and borderline symptomatology. Addictive Behaviors, 30(4), 829–840.
First, M., Spitzer, R., Gibbon, M., & Williams, J. (1995). Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (nonpatient edition). New York: Biometrics Research Department, New York State Psychiatric Institute.
Foa, E. (1995). Posttraumatic stress diagnostic scale. Minneapolis, MN: National Computer Systems.
Foa, E. B., Cashman, L., Jaycox, L., & Perry, K. (1997). The validation of a self-report measure of posttraumatic stress disorder: The Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale. Psychological Assessment, 9, 445–451.
Follette, V. M., & Vijay, A. (2009). Mindfulness for trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder. In F. Didonna (Ed.), Clinical handbook of mindfulness (pp. 299–317). New York, NY: Springer.
Hayes, S. C., Strosahl, K. D., & Wilson, K. G. (1999). Acceptance and commitment therapy: An experiential approach to behavior change. New York: Guilford Press.
Hernandez-Lopez, M., Luciano, M. C., Bricker, J. B., Roales-Nieto, J. G., & Montesinos, F. (2009). Acceptance and commitment therapy for smoking cessation: A preliminary study of its effectiveness in comparison with cognitive behavioral therapy. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 23(4), 723–730.
Hsu, S. H., Grow, J., & Marlatt, G. A. (2008). Mindfulness and addiction. Recent Developments in Alcoholism, 18, 229–250.
Johnson, K. A., Bonn-Miller, M. O., Leyro, T. M., & Zvolensky, M. J. (2009). Anxious arousal and anhedonic depression symptoms and the frequency of current marijuana use: Testing the mediating role of marijuana-use coping motives among active users. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 70(4), 543–550.
Johnson, K. A., Mullin, J. L., Marshall, E. C., Bonn-Miller, M. O., & Zvolensky, M. J. (2010). Exploring the mediational role of coping motives for marijuana use in terms of the relation between anxiety sensitivity and marijuana dependence. The American Journal on Addictions, 19, 277–282.
Kilpatrick, D. G., Acierno, R., Saunders, B., Resnick, H. S., Best, C. L., & Schnurr, P. P. (2000). Risk factors for adolescent substance abuse and dependence: Data from a national sample. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(1), 19–30.
McRae, A. L., Budney, A. J., & Brady, K. T. (2003). Treatment of marijuana dependence: A review of the literature. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 24, 369–376.
Orsillo, S. M., & Batten, S. V. (2005). Acceptance and commitment therapy in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. Behavior Modification, 29(1), 95–129.
Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2004). SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 36(4), 717–731.
Shafil, M., Lavely, R., & Jaffe, R. (1974). Meditation and marijuana. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 131(1), 60–63.
Sheets, V., & Braver, S. L. (1999). Organizational status and perceived sexual harassment: Detecting the mediators of a null effect. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25(9), 1159–1171.
Shrout, P. E., & Bolger, N. (2002). Mediation in experimental and nonexperimental studies: New procedures and recommendations. Psychological Methods, 7(4), 422–445.
Simons, J., Correia, C. J., Carey, K. B., & Borsari, B. E. (1998). Validating a five-factor marijuana motives measure: Relations with use, problems, and alcohol motives. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 45(3), 265–273.
Simpson, T. L., Kaysen, D., Bowen, S., MacPherson, L. M., Chawla, N., Blume, A., et al. (2007). PTSD symptoms, substance use, and vipassana meditation among incarcerated individuals. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 20(3), 239–249.
Spitzer, R. L., & Williams, J. B. (1986). Structured clinical interview for DSM-III-R-Non-Patient Version (modified for Vietnam veterans readjustment study 4/1/87). New York: New York State Psychiatric Institute, Biometrics Research.
State of Vermont Department of Health (2009). Retrieved June 30, 2009, from http://www.healthyvermonters.info/.
Stephens, R. S. (1999). Cannabis and hallucinogens. In B. S. McCrady & E. E. Epstein (Eds.), Addictions: A comprehensive guidebook (pp. 121–140). London: Oxford University Press.
Stephens, R. S., Roffman, R. A., & Curtin, L. (2000). Comparison of extended versus brief treatments for marijuana use. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 898–908.
Twohig, M. P., Shoenberger, D., & Hayes, S. C. (2007). A preliminary investigation of acceptance and commitment therapy as a treatment for marijuana dependence in adults. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40(4), 619–632.
Vlahov, D., Galea, S., Resnick, H., Ahern, J., Boscarino, J. A., Bucuvalas, M., et al. (2002). Increased use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana among Manhattan, New York, residents after the September 11th terrorist attacks. American Journal of Epidemiology, 155(11), 988–996.
Vujanovic, A. A., Youngwirth, N. E., Johnson, K. A., & Zvolensky, M. J. (2009). Mindfulness-based acceptance and posttraumatic stress symptoms among trauma-exposed adults without axis I psychopathology. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23(2), 297–303.
Walser, R. D., & Hayes, S. C. (2006). Acceptance and commitment therapy in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder: Theoretical and applied issues. In V. M. Follette & J. I. Ruzek (Eds.), Cognitive-behavioral therapies for trauma (pp. 146–172). New York, NY: Guilford.
Walser, R. D., & Westrup, D. (2007). Acceptance and commitment therapy for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder: A practitioner’s guide to using mindfulness and acceptance strategies. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger.
Watson, D. (2000). Mood and temperament. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063–1070.
Zvolensky, M. J., Vujanovic, A. A., Bernstein, A., Bonn-Miller, M. O., Marshall, E. C., & Leyro, T. (2007). Marijuana use motives: A confirmatory test and evaluation among young adult marijuana users. Addictive Behaviors, 32, 3122–3130.
This work was supported, in part, by a Veterans Affairs Clinical Science Research and Development (CSR&D) Career Development Award–2, granted to Dr. Bonn-Miller, as well as a National Research Service Award (1 F31 DA21006-02) granted to Dr. Vujanovic. The authors would also like to thank Drs. Michael J. Zvolensky (1 R03 DA016566-01A2), Amit Bernstein (1 F31 MH073205-01), and Alison C. McLeish for their contribution of a portion of the data used in the current study. The views expressed here are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of the Department of Veterans Affairs.
About this article
Cite this article
Bonn-Miller, M.O., Vujanovic, A.A., Twohig, M.P. et al. Posttraumatic Stress Symptom Severity and Marijuana Use Coping Motives: A Test of the Mediating Role of Non-Judgmental Acceptance within a Trauma-Exposed Community Sample. Mindfulness 1, 98–106 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-010-0013-6
- Posttraumatic stress