Skip to main content

Evaluation of Allergenic and Mutagenic Activity In Vivo of New Gas Hydrate and Corrosion Inhibitors Based on Waterborne Polyurethanes


The development of environmentally friendly multifunctional additives is an urgent area of modern organic chemistry. In this work, some derivatives of waterborne polyurethanes as efficient dual-purpose gas hydrate and corrosion inhibitors were studied for their allergenic and mutagenic activity in vivo. Studies of the allergenic effect of polyurethane samples on guinea pigs, rats, and rabbits indicated that these compounds do not have a negative effect on the organism of laboratory animals and do not pose a mutagenic hazard at concentration of 1 wt%. However, these polymers had an allergenic effect on the tissues of laboratory animals in the area of their application at a concentration of 10 wt%. The results of this study provide reasonable evidence for application of waterborne polyurethanes as safe additives for humans and the environment at their optimum concentration (1 wt%) for inhibiting the formation of gas hydrates and corrosion in the oil and gas industry.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2


  1. Farhadian, A., Varfolomeev, M. A., Shaabani, A., Zaripova, Y. F., Yarkovoi, V. V., & Khayarov, K. R. (2020). Inhibition performance of chitosan- graft-polyacrylamide as an environmentally friendly and high-cloud-point inhibitor of nucleation and growth of methane hydrate. Crystal Growth & Design, 20(3), 1771–1778.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Sanatgar, S. M., & Peyvandi, K. (2019). New edible additives as green inhibitors for preventing methane hydrate formation. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 7(3), 103172.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Sloan, E. D., & Koh, C. A. (2008). Clathrate hydrates of natural gases (3rd ed.). CRC Press (Taylor & Francis Group).

    Google Scholar 

  4. Farhadian, A., Kudbanov, A., Varfolomeev, M. A., & Dalmazzone, D. (2019). Waterborne polyurethanes as a new and promising class of kinetic inhibitors for methane hydrate formation. Science and Reports, 9(1), 9797.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Farhadian, A., Varfolomeev, M. A., Rahimi, A., et al. (2021). Gas hydrate and corrosion inhibition performance of the newly synthesized polyurethanes: Potential dual function inhibitors. Energy & Fuels, 35(7), 6113–6124.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Zhang, Q. H., Hou, B. S., & Zhang, G. A. (2020). Inhibitive and adsorption behavior of thiadiazole derivatives on carbon steel corrosion in CO2-saturated oilfield produced water: Effect of substituent group on efficiency. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 572, 91–106.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Zhang, Q. H., Hou, B. S., Li, Y. Y., et al. (2021). Two amino acid derivatives as high efficient green inhibitors for the corrosion of carbon steel in CO2-saturated formation water. Corrosion Science, 189, 109596.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Zhang, Q. H., Hou, B. S., Li, Y. Y., et al. (2021). Dextran derivatives as highly efficient green corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel in CO2-saturated oilfield produced water: experimental and theoretical approaches. Chemical Engineering Journal, 424, 130519.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Kelland, M. A. (2014). Production chemicals for the oil and gas industry. CRC Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  10. Sheng, Q., Silveira, K., Tian, W., et al. (2017). Simultaneous hydrate and corrosion inhibition with modified poly(vinyl caprolactam) polymers. Energy & Fuels, 31(7), 6724–6731.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Farhadian, A., Varfolomeev, M. A., Semenov, A. P., Mendgaziev, R. I., & Stoporev, A. S. (2020). Dual-function synergists based on glucose and sucrose for gas hydrate and corrosion inhibition. Energy & Fuels, 34(11), 13717–13727.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Farhadian, A., Varfolomeev, M. A., Kudbanov, A., Rezaeisadat, M., & Nurgaliev, D. K. (2020). Waterborne polymers as kinetic/anti-agglomerant methane hydrate and corrosion inhibitors: a new and promising strategy for flow assurance. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, 77, 103235.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Farhadian, A., Varfolomeev, M. A., Shaabani, A., et al. (2020). Sulfonated chitosan as green and high cloud point kinetic methane hydrate and corrosion inhibitor: Experimental and theoretical studies. Carbohydrate Polymers, 236, 116035.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Farhadian, A., Varfolomeev, M. A., Rezaeisadat, M., Semenov, A. P., & Stoporev, A. S. (2020). Toward a bio-based hybrid inhibition of gas hydrate and corrosion for flow assurance. Energy, 210, 118549.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Pavelyev, R. S., Zaripova, Y. F., Yarkovoi, V. V., et al. (2020). Performance of waterborne polyurethanes in inhibition of gas hydrate formation and corrosion: Influence of hydrophobic fragments. Molecules, 25(23), 5664.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Farhadian, A., Varfolomeev, M. A., Kudbanov, A., & Gallyamova, S. R. (2019). A new class of promising biodegradable kinetic/anti-agglomerant methane hydrate inhibitors based on castor oil. Chemical Engineering Science, 206, 507–517.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Farhadian, A., Rahimi, A., Safaei, N., Shaabani, A., Abdouss, M., & Alavi, A. A. (2020). Theoretical and experimental study of castor oil-based inhibitor for corrosion inhibition of mild steel in acidic medium at elevated temperatures. Corrosion Science, 175, 108871.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Farhadian, A., Rahimi, A., Safaei, N., et al. (2021). Exploration of sunflower oil as a renewable biomass source to develop scalable and highly effective corrosion inhibitors in a 15% HCl medium at high temperatures. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 13(2), 3119–3138.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Sarowska, J., Choroszy-Krol, I., Regulska-Ilow, B., Frej-Madrzak, M., & Jama-Kmiecik, A. (2013). The therapeutic effect of probiotic bacteria on gastrointestinal diseases. Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 22(5), 759–766.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Kikuchi, Y., Kunitoh-Asari, A., Hayakawa, K., et al. (2014). Oral administration of lactobacillus plantarum strain AYA enhances IgA secretion and provides survival protection against influenza virus infection in mice. PLoS One, 9(1), e86416.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Hayashi, M. (2016). The micronucleus test—Most widely used in vivo genotoxicity test. Genes and Environment, 38(1), 1–6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Broschinski, L., Madle, S., & Hensel, C. (1998). Genotoxicity tests for new chemicals in germany: Routine in vitro test systems. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, 418(2–3), 121–129.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Chase, T., Cham, K., & Cham, B. (2020). Evaluation of dermal irritation and skin sensitization by Curaderm. International Journal of Clinical Medicine, 11, 548–558.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Jaen-Tellez, J. A., Sanchez-Guerrero, M. J., Valera, M., & Gonzalez-Redondo, P. (2021). Influence of stress assessed through infrared thermography and environmental parameters on the performance of fattening rabbits. Animals, 11, 1747.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Chrz, J., Hosikova, B., Svobodova, L., Mannerström, M., et al. (2020). Comparison of methods used for evaluation of mutagenicity/genotoxicity of model chemicals - Parabens. Physiological Research, 69(Suppl. 4), S661–S679.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Ford, C. E., & Hamerton, J. L. (1956). A colchicine, hypotonic citrate, squash sequence for mammalian chromosomes. Stain Technology, 31(6), 247–251.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Preston, R. J., Dean, B. J., Galloway, S., Holden, H., McFee, A. F., & Shelby, M. (1987). Mammalian in vivo cytogenetic assays analysis of chromosome aberrations in bone marrow cells. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology, 189(2), 157–165.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. European Medicines Agency Guidelines: ICH (S2) R1 genotoxicity testing and data interpretation for pharmaceuticals intended for human use. Accessed 12 Jan 2021

Download references


This research was funded by RFBR and The Research Council of Norway according to the re-search project 20–55-20010.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations



Conceptualization: R. S. Pavelyev, M. A. Varfolomeev, L. R. Valiullin; methodology: R. S. Pavelyev, Rin. S. Mukhammadiev, Rish. S. Mukhammadiev, L. R. Valiullin; validation: R. S. Pavelyev, Rin. S. Mukhammadiev, Rish. S. Mukhammadiev, L. R. Valiullin, M. A. Varfolomeev; data curation: Rin. S. Mukhammadiev, Rish. S. Mukhammadiev; writing—original draft preparation: Rin. S. Mukhammadiev, Rish. S. Mukhammadiev; writing—review and editing, R. S. Pavelyev, M. A. Varfolomeev, L. R. Valiullin, Y. F. Zaripova; formal analysis: R. S. Pavelyev, Rin. S. Mukhammadiev, Rish. S. Mukhammadiev, L. R. Valiullin, M. A. Varfolomeev; investigation: Rin. S. Mukhammadiev, Rish. S. Mukhammadiev, R. S. Pavelyev, Y. F. Zaripova, L. R. Valiullin, O. V. Shlyamina, A. P. Glinushkin; resources: M. A. Varfolomeev; visualization: R. S. Pavelyev, Rin. S. Mukhammadiev, Rish. S. Mukhammadiev, L. R. Valiullin; supervision: M. A. Varfolomeev and L. R. Valiullin; project administration: R. S. Pavelyev and L. R. Valiullin; funding acquisition: M. A. Varfolomeev. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

The study was carried out in accordance with the general European requirements for animals used in the experiment (Strasbourg, 1986) and was approved by the Ethics Commit-tee on the experimental use of laboratory animals of the researcher’s institution (order No. 251-p of 22 November, 2017).

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mikhail A. Varfolomeev.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest that could be perceived as prejudicing the impartiality of the research reported.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Valiullin, L.R., Mukhammadiev, R.S., Mukhammadiev, R.S. et al. Evaluation of Allergenic and Mutagenic Activity In Vivo of New Gas Hydrate and Corrosion Inhibitors Based on Waterborne Polyurethanes. BioNanoSci. 12, 256–266 (2022).

Download citation

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Environmental effects
  • Allergenic activity
  • Mutagenic activity
  • Kinetic hydrate inhibitor
  • Corrosion inhibitor
  • Waterborne polyurethane