Analysis of Natural Convection Bionanofluid Between Two Vertical Parallel Plates

  • Ahmad Hajizadeh
  • Nehad Ali ShahEmail author
  • F. D. Zaman
  • I. L. Animasaun


In this paper, natural convection flow of non-Newtonian bionanofluid flow between two vertical flat plates is considered. Sodium alginate (SA) is considered the base non-Newtonian fluid, and nanoparticles such as titania (TiO2) and alumina (Al2O3) were added to them. Analytical solutions for temperature and velocity field are determined by means of integral transform (Laplace transform) method. The influences of some physical parameters non-dimensional velocity and temperature profiles are graphically underlined.


Natural convection Bionanofluid Laplace transform Vertical plates 



The fluid velocity [LT−1]


The fluid temperature [K]


The acceleration due to the gravity [LT−2]


The density of the nanofluid [ML−3]


The thermal expansion coefficient of the nanofluid [K−1]


The dynamic viscosity of the nanofluid [ML−1T−1]


The dimensional heat generation/absorption coefficient [WL−3K−1]


The specific heat of the nanofluid at constant pressure [L2MT−1K−1]


The thermal conductivity of the bionanofluid [WL−1K−1]


The distance between plates [L]


The nanoparticle volume fraction

f and s

Fluid and solid particles, respectively


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no Conflict of Interest and authors receive no fund.

Research Involving Humans and Animals Statement


Informed Consent


Funding Statement



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Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmad Hajizadeh
    • 1
    • 2
  • Nehad Ali Shah
    • 3
    Email author
  • F. D. Zaman
    • 4
  • I. L. Animasaun
    • 5
  1. 1.FASTUniversity Tun Hussein Onn MalaysiaParit RajaMalaysia
  2. 2.Public Authority of Applied Education and Training, Applied Science DepartmentCollege of Technological StudiesShuwaikhKuwait
  3. 3.Department of MathematicsLahore Leads UniversityLahorePakistan
  4. 4.Abdus Salam School of Mathematical SciencesGC UniversityLahorePakistan
  5. 5.Department of Mathematical SciencesFederal University of TechnologyAkureNigeria

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