AFM Observation of Heightened Cell Periphery of High-Grade Glioblastoma Cell Lines
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly invasive (WHO grade IV) brain tumour that has a very poor prognosis for patients with the condition (median survival 14.2 months). Quantitative Imaging (QI)® mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to measure the heights of the leading-edge cell peripheries, the lamellipodia, of two such cell lines (SNB-19 and UP-007), together with those from non-neoplastic astrocyte control cells (CC-2565 and SC-1800) and from a low-grade (WHO grade I) glioma cell line (SEBTA-048). The lamellipodia heights of the glioma cells SNB-19 and UP-007 were 2.45 ± 0.59 and 1.57 ± 0.42 μm, respectively, which were higher than those of the CC-2565 and SC-1800 cells (1.03 ± 0.58 and 0.85 ± 0.40 μm, respectively; p < 0.0001, except between CC-2565 and UP-007, p < 0.001). Lamellipodia height differences between the two glioma cell lines (p < 0.0001) might be attributed to the measured difference in invasive potential between these two cell lines. The equivalent lamellipodia height of the SEBTA-048 cells was 1.16 ± 0.48 μm, the same as that of the astrocytes (p > 0.05) but lower than those of the high-grade gliomas (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.01 for SNB-19 and UP-007, respectively). These measured heights, therefore, may provide new insights for monitoring and controlling cellular invasion in brain tumours.
KeywordsGlioblastoma multiforme (GBM) Brain tumour Invasion Cytoskeleton Lamellipodia Atomic force microscopy (AFM)
We thank Drs. Robert Field and Alex Winkle from JPK Instruments, Cambridge, UK, for loan of the NanoWizard 3 AFM instrument, and Brain Tumour Research for support. We also thank Prof. Keyoumars Ashkan and Dr. Stavros Polyzoidis, of the Department of Neurosurgery, King’s College Hospital, London, UK, for providing the brain tumour biopsy sample for establishment as a primary cell line (SEBTA-048).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
All cell lines established in-house were conducted in accordance with the National Research Ethics Service (NRES) instructions and under ethics permission 11/SC/0048.
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