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Effect of Copper and Heat Treatment on Microstructure of Austempered Ductile Iron

Abstract

Austempering of ductile iron was described in this paper. All the influential parameters during production of ADI have been clarified. The literature data indicate that each heat treatment parameter has a certain influence on the final microstructure and, therefore, on the mechanical properties of ADI. Effect of alloying elements in ductile iron has been investigated. Based on the current knowledge and austempering heat treatment parameters, a plan of experiments was designed. In this paper, the influence of the most important heat treatment parameters and copper content on the final microstructure of ADI was determined. By varying the copper content, it is possible to influence the volume fraction of retained austenite in ADI. The results of the planned research could serve as a basis for the development of unique mathematical models that would include the influence of each individual parameter of heat treatment and copper content on the microstructure of ADI. The mathematical models thus developed would serve to predict the final mechanical properties depending on the input parameters of the heat treatment and the copper content.

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Correspondence to Nikša Čatipović.

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Appendices

Appendix

Appendix shows microstructural images of all tested samples under an optical microscope at a magnification of 200x.

Figure 

Fig. 9
figure 9

Microstructural images of the test samples of ADI with 0.031 wt% Cu, under a magnification of 200x. The test samples are in order, from left to right: 503, 504, 505, 507, 508, 509, 510, 511, 512, 514, 516, 5147, 518, 519 and 520

9 shows the microstructures of samples with 0.031 wt. % Cu.

Figure 

Fig. 10
figure 10

Microstructural images of the test samples of ADI with 0.32 wt% Cu, under a magnification of 200x. The test samples are in order, from left to right: 602, 603, 605, 607, 608, 609, 610, 612, 613, 614, 615, 619, 620, 626 and 629

10 shows the microstructures of samples with 0.32 wt. % Cu.

Figure 

Fig. 11
figure 11

Microstructural images of the test samples of ADI with 0.51 wt% Cu, under a magnification of 200x. The test samples are in order, from left to right: 701, 703, 704, 705, 706, 707, 708, 709, 710, 711, 712, 715, 717 and 718

11 shows the microstructures of samples with 0.51 wt. % Cu.

Figure 

Fig. 12
figure 12

Microstructural images of the test samples of ADI with 0.91 wt% Cu, under a magnification of 200x. The test samples are in order, from left to right: 801, 802, 803, 807, 808, 809, 810, 811, 812, 813, 814, 815, 818, 821 and 822

12 shows the microstructures of samples with 0.91 wt. % Cu.

See Figs. 9, 10, 11 and 12

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Čatipović, N., Živković, D., Dadić, Z. et al. Effect of Copper and Heat Treatment on Microstructure of Austempered Ductile Iron. Trans Indian Inst Met 74, 1455–1468 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12666-021-02225-6

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12666-021-02225-6

Keywords

  • Austempered ductile iron
  • Austempering parameters
  • Copper content
  • Microstructure
  • Mathematical modeling