Microstructural Studies of Cobalt Based Microwave Clad Developed on Martensitic Stainless Steel (AISI-420)

Technical Paper


AISI-420 stainless steel is widely used to manufacture hydraulic and gas turbine components. The present work is concerned with microstructural studies of cobalt based clad developed through microwave energy in a microwave applicator. A domestic microwave oven was successfully used to develop clads at 2.45 GHz frequency. The developed clads were evaluated using optical metallography, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine the microstructure, phases and elemental composition of developed surface. The microstructure study reveals that the developed clad shows good metallurgical bond between substrate without any interfacial cracks. XRD study confirms the presence of various complex metal carbides and intermetallics like Cr7C3, Cr3C2, M23C6, Cr2Ni3 which are formed during microwave heating. The average microhardness of the developed clad surface is 807 ± 96 HV, which is 132% higher than that of unclad surface (348 ± 7 HV).


Microwave AISI-420 Cobalt Scanning electron microscope (SEM) Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) X-ray diffraction 


  1. 1.
    Carter T, J Eng Fail Analys 12 (2005) 237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Matthews A, Artley R J, Holiday P, Mater World 6 (1998) 346.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Liu Y Z, Gui Y W, Mater Mech Eng 16 (1992) 1.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gholipur A, Shamanian M, Ashrafizadeh F, J Alloys Compd 509 (2011) 4905.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Xu Y T, Xia T D, Huang Y L, Rare Metal Mater Eng 38 (2009) 1333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chen J, Li X Y, Bell T, Dong H, Wear 264 (2008) 157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sidhu T S, Prakash S, Agrawal R D, Surf Coat Technol 201 (2006) 273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shepeleva L, Medres B, Kaplan W D, Bamberger M, Weisheit A, Surf Coat Technol 125 (2000) 45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kathuria Y P, Surf Coat Technol 132 (2000) 262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Frenk A, Surf Coat Technol 45 (1991) 435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pilloz M, Pelletier J M, Vannes A B, Mater Sci 27 (1992) 1240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zhou S, Zeng X, Hu Q, Huang Y, Appl Surf Sci 255 (2008) 1646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Buang A P, Liu R, Wu X J, Yao M X, J Coat Technol Res 5 (2008) 513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hong S, Wu Y P, Gao W W, Wang B, Guo W M, Lin J R, Surf Eng 30 (2014) 53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mateos J, Cuetos J M, Fernandez E, Vijande R, Wear 239 (2000) 274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cay V V, Ozan S, Gok M S, J Coat Technol Res 8 (2011) 97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cheng F T, Lo K H, Man H C, Surf Coat Technol 172 (2003) 308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Oghbaei M, Mirzaee O, J Alloys Compd 494 (2010) 175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Satnam S, Gupta D, Vivek J, Sharma A K, Mat Manf Proc 30 (2015) 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Radha R M, Sharma A K, Compos A 81 (2016) 78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Srinath M S, Sharma A K, Kumar P, J Manuf Process 13 (2011) 141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Badiger R I, Narendranath S, Srinath M S, J. Manuf. Process., 18 (2015) 117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gupta D, Sharma A K, Surf Coat Technol 205 (2011) 5147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hebbale A M, Srinath M S, Perspect Sci 8 (2016) 257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hebbale A M, Srinath M S, Measurement 99 (2017) 98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zafar S, Sharma A K, Wear 29–45 (2016) 346.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sarbjeet K, Vinay S, Gupta D, Hiralal B, Satnam S, J Mater Des Appln. Doi: 10.1177/1464420715616139.
  28. 28.
    Hebbale A M, Srinath M S, J Mater Res Technol 5(4) (2016) 293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hebbale A M, Srinath M S, Mater Today Proc 2 (2015) 1414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Maiek F, Ph.D. Thesis, Cranf Inst Tech 1990.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    ASM Metals Handbook: Metall Microstruct 9 (1985) 12.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Thostenson E T, Chou T W, Compos A, 30 (1999) 1055.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Li M X, He Y Z, Sun G X, Appl Surf Sci 230 (2004) 201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Indian Institute of Metals - IIM 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringNMAM Institute of TechnologyNitteIndia
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringMalnad College of EngineeringHassanIndia

Personalised recommendations