Skip to main content

Long-term streamflow trends in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH)


The paper investigates streamflow trends in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH). Long-term (1961–2020) average annual and monthly streamflow trends were elicited on the basis of data from seven hydrological stations which are positioned on most of the largest rivers in BH. Trend disclosure was conducted by utilizing the Mann–Kendall (MK) test, the modified MK (mMK) test, and the Sen’s slope estimator (SSE). The decreasing trend in annual streamflows is present across all studied rivers in BH in the range from − 0.07 to − 0.84 m3/s/year. Significant negative tendencies in summer months (June, July, and August) streamflows were determined at almost all stations. July is the month in which significant negative trends were recorded at six out of seven stations (− 0.11 to − 0.66 m3/s/year). The insignificant negative tendency was, in general, present throughout the year, whereas negligibly positive trends were present during March and October at a couple of stations. The Rescaled Adjusted Partial Sums (RAPS) analysis revealed that 1981/1982 was the year when most hydrological stations started exhibiting negative streamflow tendencies. Our results point out that the water resources of BH require sustainable management and that this is one of the essential tasks for decision-makers at both the state and local levels Also, this study represents the starting point for further research in water resources, given that so far this is the first and most comprehensive long-term analysis of average streamflows at the national level of BH.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

Data availability

Not applicable.


Download references


No funding was received for conducting this study.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations



All authors have contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation, data collection, and analysis were performed by all authors. The first draft of the manuscript was written by SG, TP, MI, and GT and all authors commented on the previous versions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Slobodan Gnjato.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors have no financial or non-financial interests to disclose.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Gnjato, S., Popov, T., Ivanišević, M. et al. Long-term streamflow trends in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH). Environ Earth Sci 82, 356 (2023).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: