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Establishing almond orchards in karstic and water-limited central Taurus Mountain region of southern Turkey


Irrigable farmland is very limited in the Central Taurus Mountain region of Turkey. Most of the rain-fed land has been used for cultivation of wheat and chickpeas. Despite the increase in input costs in recent years, wheat and chickpea prices have not increased in parallel and therefore, large agricultural areas have been left empty. Almond performs well in such karstic areas of water scarcity. The introduction of new high-yield American, Spanish, and French varieties offers an opportunity to the local farmers. However, the terrain is highly fragmented and most of the plots are used for subsistence farming. Therefore, establishing an orchard is a very expensive prospect for low-income villagers. The stages of establishing an almond orchard in the karstic area in the Taurus Mountain region of southern Turkey are explained in this study and the approximate costs are summarized. Establishing a 1-ha almond orchard was estimated to cost about 45,000 Turkish liras, based on 2017–2018 figures. Even though expenses for establishing an almond orchard may vary among sites depending on the terrain, factors such as seedling variety, fencing, and site preparation (involving soil excavation) make up about 45% of the total cost.

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This study is funded by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK) through a Project No: 1180O91 and titled as “Tuz Gölü-Konya Havzasında Bulunan Ağaçlandırma Sahalarında Ağaç Türlerinin Başarı Oranları ile Toprak Özelliklerinde Meydana Gelen Değişimin Belirlenmesi”.

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Correspondence to Oktay Yildiz.

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This article is a part of the Topical collection in Environmental Earth Sciences on “Water Problems in E. Mediterranean Countries” guest edited by H. Gökçeku, D. Orhon, V. Nourania, and S. Sozen.

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Yildiz, O. Establishing almond orchards in karstic and water-limited central Taurus Mountain region of southern Turkey. Environ Earth Sci 80, 384 (2021).

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  • Agriculture
  • Dry-farming
  • Almond
  • Taurus