Environmental Earth Sciences

, 77:779 | Cite as

Historical shoreline trend analysis and drivers of coastal change along the Ravenna coast, NE Adriatic

  • Oxana SytnikEmail author
  • Laura Del Río
  • Nicolas Greggio
  • Jarbas Bonetti
Original Article


One of the most important aspects of coastal zone management is the analysis of shoreline dynamics. Over the last years, beaches of the Ravenna coast (NE Italy) experienced large modifications, in some places narrowing or even being completely lost, thus threatening tourism, coastal assets and nature. Coastal erosion has direct consequences for Ravenna tourist-based economy, which largely depends on the attraction provided by sandy beaches. In this study, long-term (> 50 years) coastal analysis was used to identify the sectors along the coast where the shoreline position has changed, either advancing or retreating. Shoreline changes were measured on GIS environment by means of Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) extension. Net Shoreline Movement (NSM) and Linear Regression Rate (LRR) strategies were employed to examine shoreline variability and reveal erosional/accretional trends. The results show that significant shoreline changes affected the entire coastal region, with most of the study area under retreat, mainly in the most valuable tourist assets of the littoral. The effects were found to be worsened by impacts of land subsidence, presence of harbor infrastructure and deficit in sediment budget. A simple shoreline classification was performed over the DSAS results and cross-checked with local knowledge of the area. The measurement of erosion or accretion rates in each studied segment is found to be useful for land use planning and coastal management plans, especially regarding the prediction of future shoreline positions. Especially important is the potential of the classification to identify areas of significant position change, with current and future implications for the design of sustainable shoreline management and mitigation measures.


Coastal erosion Retreat Accretion Spatial analysis DSAS 



This work was performed in the frame of Erasmus Mundus Joint Doctorate in Marine and Coastal Management (MACOMA), an initiative of the European Commission. The authors would like to acknowledge the support of Integrated Geoscience Research Group (IGRG), Ravenna, Italy and Department of Earth Science, University of Cadiz, Spain. The authors would like to thank Prof. Giovanni Gabbianelli and Fondazione Flaminia for providing satellite and aerial images used in the study. This work is a contribution to project ADACOSTA (CGL2014-53153-R, Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness) and to the research group RNM-328 of the PAI (Andalusia Research Plan).


  1. Addo AK, Walkden M, Mills JP (2010) Detection, measurement and prediction of shoreline recession in Accra, Ghana. ISPRS J Photogramm Remote Sens 63:543–558Google Scholar
  2. Aguzzi M, Bonsignore F, De Nigris N, Morelli M, Paccagnella M, Romagnoli V, Unguendoli S (2016) Stato del litorale emiliano-romagnolo al 2012 Erosione e interventi di difesa. Accessed 25 June 2018
  3. Airoldi L, Ponti M, Abbiati M (2015) Conservation challenges in human dominated seascapes: the harbour and coast of Ravenna. Reg Stud Mar Sci 8:308–318Google Scholar
  4. Amorosi A, Colalongo ML, Fusco F, Pasini G, Fiorini F (1999) Glacio-eustatic control of continental–shallow marine cyclicity from late Quaternary deposits of the southeastern Po Plain, northern Italy. Quat Res 52(1):1–13Google Scholar
  5. Anders FJ, Byrnes MR (1991) Accuracy of shoreline change rates as determined from maps and aerial photographs. Shore Beach 59(1):17–26Google Scholar
  6. Angnuureng BD, Addo AK, Wiafe G (2013) Impact of sea defines structures on downdrift coasts: the case of Keta in Ghana. Environ Earth Sci 1(6):104–121Google Scholar
  7. ARPA (2009) Stato del litorale emiliano-romagnolo all’anno 2007 e piano decennale di gestione. In: Preti M, De Nigris N, Morelli M, Monti M, Bonsignore F, Aguzzi M (eds) I Quaderni di ARPA 2009, pp 238Google Scholar
  8. Armaroli C, Ciavola P, Perini L, Lorito S, Valentini A, Masina M (2012) Critical storm thresholds for significant morphological changes and damage along the Emilia-Romagna coastline, Italy. Geomorphology 143–144:34–51Google Scholar
  9. Armaroli C, Grottoli E, Harley MD, Ciavola P (2013) Beach morphodynamics and types of foredune erosion generated by storms along the Emilia-Romagna coastline, Italy. Geomorphology 199: 22–35Google Scholar
  10. Aucelli PPC, Iannantuono E, Rosskopf CM (2009) Evoluzione recente e rischio di erosione della costa molisana (Italia meridionale). Ital J Geosci 128(3):759–771Google Scholar
  11. Barbarella M, Giglio DM, Greggio N (2015) Effects of saltwater intrusion on pinewood vegetation using satellite ASTER data: the case study of Ravenna (Italy). Environ Monit Assess 186:1–19Google Scholar
  12. Bathrellos GD, Skilodimou HD, Chousianitis K, Youssef AM, Pradhan B (2017) Suitability estimation for urban development using multi-hazard assessment map. Sci Total Environ 575:119–134Google Scholar
  13. Bertoni W, Brighenti G, Gambolati G, Ricceri G, Vullermin F (1995) Land subsidence due to gas production in the on- and off-shore natural gas fields of the Ravenna area, Italy. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Land Subsidence, The Hague, The Netherlands, pp 13–20Google Scholar
  14. Bertoni W, Brighenti G, Gambolati G, Ricceri G, Vullermin F (2005) Land subsidence due to gas production in the on- and off-shore natural gas fields of the Ravenna area, Italy. In: Proceedings of the 5th international symposium on land subsidence, The Hague, The Netherlands, pp 13–20Google Scholar
  15. Bheeroo RA, Chandrasekar A, Kaliraj S, Magesh NS (2016) Shoreline change rate and erosion risk assessment along the Trou Aux Biches–Mont Choisy beach on the northwest coast of Mauritius using GIS-DSAS technique. Environ Earth Sci 75:53–68Google Scholar
  16. Billi P, Salemi E, Preciso E, Ciavola P, Armaroli C (2017) Field measurement of bedload in a sand-bed river supplying a sediment starving beach. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie 61(3):207–223Google Scholar
  17. Boak EH, Turner I (2005) Shoreline definition and detection: a review. J Coast Res 21(4):688–703Google Scholar
  18. Bonetti J, Klein AHF, Muler M, De Luca CB, Silva GV, Toldo JREE, Gonzalez M (2013) Spatial and numerical methodologies on coastal erosion and flooding risk assessment. In: Finkl C (ed) Coastal Hazards, Chap. 16. Coastal Research Library Series. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 423–442Google Scholar
  19. Bonetti J, Rudorff FM, Campos AV, Serafim MB (2018) Geoindicator-based assessment of Santa Catarina (Brazil) sandy beaches susceptibility to erosion. SI: Management Strategies for Coastal Erosion Problems. Ocean Coast Manage 156:198–208Google Scholar
  20. Burningham H, French J (2017) Understanding coastal change using shoreline trend analysis supported by cluster-based segmentation. Geomorphology 282: 131–149Google Scholar
  21. Carbognin L, Gatto P, Marabini F (1984) Guidebook of the Eastern Po plain (Italy): A short illustration about the environment and land subsidence. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Land Subsidence, Modena, Italy, pp 459–496Google Scholar
  22. Carboni M, Carranza ML, Acosta A (2009) Assessing conservation status on coastal dunes: a multiscale approach. Landscape Urban Plan 91:17–25Google Scholar
  23. Caruso L, Minchio A, Sabia M, Stecchi F (2006) Coastal dunes as a resilient factor: a new challenge for coastal system management: example from Bevano River (Ravenna, Italy). In: Proceedings of the 5th European Congress on Regional Geoscientific Cartography and Information System, Barcelona, Spain, pp 504–509Google Scholar
  24. Cencini C, Marchi M, Torresani S, Varani L (1988) The impact of tourism on Italian deltaic coastlands: four case studies. Ocean Shoreline Manage 11:353–374Google Scholar
  25. Ciavola P, Armaroli C (2010) Evoluzione recente del sistema dunale di Lido di Dante-Foce Bevano (Ravenna): fattori naturali ed impatto antropico. Studi Costieri 17:19–38Google Scholar
  26. Ciavola P, Armaroli C, Chiggiato J, Valentini A, Deserti M, Perini L, Luciani P (2007) Impact of storms along the coastline of Emilia-Romagna: the morphological signature on the Ravenna coastline (Italy). J Coast Res 50:540–544Google Scholar
  27. Coastance (2011) Strategie e strumenti di gestione della costa in Emilia-Romagna.
  28. Colantoni P, Gabbianelli G, Mancini F, Bertoni W (1997) Coastal defence by breakwaters and sea-level rise: the case of the Italian Northern Adriatic Sea. Bulletin-Instiut Oceanographique Monaco, numero special, pp 133–150Google Scholar
  29. Cooper JAG, Navas F (2004) Natural bathymetric change as a control on a century-scale shoreline behavior. Geology 32:513–516Google Scholar
  30. Corbau C, Simeoni U, Melchiorre M, Rodella I, Utizi K (2015) Regional variability of coastal dunes observed along the Emilia-Romagna littoral, Italy. Aeolian Res 18:169–183Google Scholar
  31. Crowell M, Leatherman SP (1999) Coastal erosion mapping and management. J Coast Res SI 28:196–211Google Scholar
  32. Crowell M, Leatherman SP, Buckley ME (1991) Historical shoreline change: error analysis and mapping accuracy. Coastal Res 7(3):839–852Google Scholar
  33. Crowell M, Douglas BC, Leatherman SP (1997) On forecasting future U.S. shoreline positions: a test of algorithms. J Coast Res 13(4):1245–1255Google Scholar
  34. Davies JL (1964) A morphogenic approach to world shorelines. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie 8:127–142Google Scholar
  35. Deepika B, Avinash K, Jayappa KS (2013) Shoreline change rate estimation and its forecast: remote sensing, geographical information system and statistics-based approach. Environ Sci Technol 11:395–416Google Scholar
  36. DEFRA (2016) Adapting to a changing climate - The Environment Agency’s second adaptation report under the Climate Change Act, Environment Agency. Accessed 4 July 2018
  37. Del Río L, Gracia FJ (2013) Error determination in the photogrammetric assessment of shoreline changes. Nat Hazards 65:2385–2397Google Scholar
  38. Del Río L, Gracia FJ, Benavente J (2012) Shoreline change patterns in sandy coasts: a case study in SW Spain. Geomorphology 196:252–266Google Scholar
  39. Del Río L, Gracia FJ, Benavente J (2013) Morphological and evolutionary classification of sandy beaches in Cadiz coast (SW Spain). J Coast Res SI 65:2113–2118Google Scholar
  40. Delle Rose M (2015) Medium-term erosion processes of South Adriatic beaches (Apulia, Italy): a challenge for an integrated coastal zone management. J Earth Sci Clim Change 6(9):1–6Google Scholar
  41. Dolan R, Hayden BP, May P, May S (1980) The reliability of shoreline change measurements from aerial photographs. Shore Beach 48(4):22–29Google Scholar
  42. Dolan R, Fenster MS, Holme SJ (1991) Temporal analysis of shoreline recession and accretion. J Coast Res 7(3):723–744Google Scholar
  43. Douglas BC, Crowell M (2000) Long-term shoreline position prediction and error propagation. J Coast Res 16(1):145–152Google Scholar
  44. Dugan JE, Airodi L, Chapman MG, Walker S, Schlacher TA (2011) Estuarine and coastal structures: environmental effects: a focus on shore and nearshore structures. In: Wolanski E, McLusky DS (eds) Treatise on estuarine and coastal science. Academic Press, Waltham, pp 17–41Google Scholar
  45. Elfrink B, Christensen ED, Broker I (1998) Coastal morphodynamics in subsiding areas. In: Gambolati G (ed) CENAS: Coastline Evolution of the Upper Adriatic Sea due to Sea Level Rise and Natural and Anthropogenic Land Subsidence. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 235–270Google Scholar
  46. Elliot I, Clarke D (1989) Temporal and spatial bias in the estimation of shoreline rate-of-change statistics from beach survey information. Coast Manage 17:129–156Google Scholar
  47. Esteves LS, Williams JJ, Dillenburg S (2006) Seasonal and interannual influences on the patterns of shoreline changes in Rio Grande do Sul. Southern Brazil. J Coast Res 22(5):1076–1093Google Scholar
  48. Esteves LS, Williams JJ, Nock A, Lymbery G (2009) Quantifying shoreline changes along the Sefton coast (UK) and the implications for research-informed coastal management. J Coast Res SI 56:602–606Google Scholar
  49. European Parliament and Council (2007) Directive 2007/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2007 on the assessment and management of flood risks. Official Journal of the European Union L 288/27.
  50. Eurosion (2004) Living with coastal erosion in Europe: a guide to Coastal Erosion Management Practices in Europe: lessons Learned. A case study of Marina di Ravenna and Lido Adriano. Directorate General Environment European Commission, The HagueGoogle Scholar
  51. Ferreira O, Garcia T, Matias A, Taborda R, Dias JA (2006) An integrated method for the determination of set-back lines for coastal erosion hazards on sandy shores. Cont Shelf Res 26:1030–1044Google Scholar
  52. Gambolati G, Giunta G, Teatini P (1998) Numerical modelling of natural land subsidence over sedimentary basins undergoing large compaction. In: Gambolati G (ed) CENAS: Coastline Evolution of the Upper Adriatic Sea due to Sea Level Rise and Natural and Anthropogenic Land Subsidence. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 1–37Google Scholar
  53. Gambolati G, Teatini P, Tomasi L, Gonella M (1999) Coastline regression of the Romagna Region, Italy, due to sea level rise and natural and anthropogenic land subsidence. Water Resour Res 35(1):163–184Google Scholar
  54. Genz AS, Fletcher CH, Dunn RA, Frazer LN, Rooney JJ (2007) The predictive accuracy of shoreline change rate methods and alongshore beach variation on Maui, Hawaii. J Coast Res 23:87–105Google Scholar
  55. Giambastiani BM, Greggio N, Sistilli F, Fabbri S, Scarelli F, Candiago S, Gabbianelli G (2016) RIGED-RA project-Restoration and management of Coastal Dunes in the Northern Adriatic Coast, Ravenna Area-Italy. IOP Confer Ser Earth Environ Sci 44(5):38–52. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Global Risks Report (2016) 11th Edition, the world economic forum. Accessed 14 July 2016
  57. Gonella M, Teatini P, Tomasi L, Gambolati G (1998) Flood risk analysis in the Upper Adriatic Sea due to storm surge, tide waves, and natural and anthropic land subsidence. In: Gambolati G (ed) CENAS: Coastline Evolution of the Upper Adriatic Sea due to Sea Level Rise and Natural and Anthropogenic Land Subsidence. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 142–165Google Scholar
  58. Gopalakrishnan S, Smith MD, Slott JM, Murray AB (2011) The value of disappearing beaches: a hedonic pricing model with endogenous beach width. J Environ Econ Manage 61:297–310Google Scholar
  59. Hapke CJ, Lentz EE, Gayes PT, McCoy CA, Hehre R, Schwab WC, Williams SJ (2010) A review of sediment budget imbalances along Fire Island, New York: can nearshore geologic framework and patterns of shoreline change explain the deficit? J Coast Res 263:510–522Google Scholar
  60. Hapke CJ, Plant NG, Henderson RE, Schwab WC, Nelson TR (2016) Decoupling processes and scales of shoreline morphodynamics. Mar Geol 381: 42–53Google Scholar
  61. Hayes MO (2013) Origin, Evolution, and Classification of Tidal Inlet. J Coast Res SI 69:14–33Google Scholar
  62. IPCC Climate Change (2014) Synthesis report. In: Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Geneva, Switzerland, pp 151Google Scholar
  63. ISPRA (2013) SOS Dune, stato, problemi, interventi, gestione. Atti di convegno, RomaGoogle Scholar
  64. Jackson NL, Harley MD, Armaroli C, Nordstrom KF (2015) Beach morphologies induced by breakwaters with different orientations. Geomorphology 239: 48–57Google Scholar
  65. Katz O, Mushkin A (2013) Characteristic of sea cliff erosion induced by a strong winter storm in eastern Mediterranean. Quaternary Res 80:20–32Google Scholar
  66. Komar PD (2000) Coastal erosion - Underlying factors and human impacts. Shore Beach 68(1):3–12Google Scholar
  67. Leatherman SP (1983) Shoreline mapping: a comparison of techniques. Shore Beach 51(3):28–33Google Scholar
  68. Manca E, Pascucci V, Deluca M, Cossu A, Andreucci S (2013) Shoreline evolution related to coastal development of a managed beach in Alghero. Sardinia Italy Ocean Coast Manage 85:65–76Google Scholar
  69. Markose VJ, Rajan B, Kankara RS, Chenthamil Selvan S, Dhanalakshmi S (2016) Quantitative analysis of temporal variations on shoreline change pattern along Ganjam district, Odisha, east coast of India. Environ Earth Sci 75:10–23Google Scholar
  70. Matteucci G, Riccio S, Rossini P, Sisti E, Bernucci ME, Pari P, Benedettini M, Stanley CC (2010) Shoreline evolution trend connected to progressive construction of segment defense structures (Rimini, North Adriatic Sea, Italy). GeoActa SI 3. 135–141Google Scholar
  71. Mollema P, Antonellini M, Dinelli E, Gabbianelli G, Greggio N, Stuyfzand PJ (2013) Hydrochemical and physical processes influencing salinization and freshening in Mediterranean low-lying coastal environments. Appl Geochem 34:207–221Google Scholar
  72. Moore LJ (2000) Shoreline mapping techniques. J Coast Res 16(1):111–124Google Scholar
  73. Morelli M (1998) Collection and analysis of historical data on shoreline evolution at the sites of Ravenna, Cesenatico and Rimini. In: Gambolati G (ed) CENAS: Coastline Evolution of the Upper Adriatic Sea due to Sea Level Rise and Natural and Anthropogenic Land Subsidence. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 58–79Google Scholar
  74. Muler M, Bonetti J (2014) An integrated Approach to assess wave exposure in coastal areas for vulnerability analysis. Mar Geodesy 23:220–237Google Scholar
  75. Nicholls RJ, Wong PP, Burkett V, Codignotto J, Hay J, McLean R, Ragoonaden S, Woodroffe CD (2007) Coastal systems and low-lying areas. In: Parry ML, Canziani OF, Palutikof JP, Van Der Linden P, Hanson CE (eds) Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovermental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp 315–357Google Scholar
  76. Nicholls RJ, Townend I, Bradbury AP, Ramsbottom D, Day SA (2013) Planning for long-term coastal change: experiences from England and Wales. Ocean Eng 71: 3–16Google Scholar
  77. Nordstrom KF (2000) Beaches and dunes of developed coasts. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  78. Nordstrom KF, Armaroli C, Jackson LN, Ciavola P (2015) Opportunities and constraints for managed retreat on exposed sandy shores: Examples from Emilia-Romagna, Italy. Ocean Coast Manage 104:11–21Google Scholar
  79. Okello C, Antonellini M, Greggio N, Wambiji N (2015) Freshwater resource characterization and vulnerability to climate change of the Shela aquifer in Lamu, Kenya. Environ Earth Sci 73(7):3801–3817Google Scholar
  80. Perez-Alberti A, Pires A, Freitas L, Chamine H (2013) Shoreline change mapping long the coast of Galicia, Spain. J Marit Eng 166:125–144Google Scholar
  81. Perini L, Calabrese L, Deserti M, Valentini A, Ciavola P, Armaroli C (2011) Le mareggiate e gli impatti sulla costa in Emilia-Romagna 1946–2010. MICORE Project Report, ARPA Emilia-Romagna, pp 144Google Scholar
  82. Perini L, Calabrese L, Luciani P, Olivieri M, Galassi G, Spada G (2017) Sea-level rise along the Emilia-Romagna coast (Northern Italy) at 2100: scenarios and impacts. Nat Hazards Earth Sys. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Preciso E, Salemi E, Billi P (2012) Land use changes, torrent control works and sediment mining: effects on channel morphology and sediment flux, case study of the Reno River (Northern Italy). Hydrol Process 26: 1134–1148Google Scholar
  84. Regnauld H, Pirazzoli PA, Morvan G, Ruz M (2004) Impacts of storms and evolution of the coastline in the western France. Mar Geol 210:325–337Google Scholar
  85. Romine BM, Fletcher CH, Genz AS, Barbee MM, Dyer M, Anderson TR, Lim SC, Vitpusek S, Bochicchio C, Richmond BM (2012) National assessment of shoreline change: a GIS computation of vector shorelines and associated shoreline change for the sandy shorelines of Kauai, Oahu and Maui, Hawaii. Woods Hole, Massachusetts, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File ReportGoogle Scholar
  86. Rooney JJB, Fletcher CH, Barbee M, Eversole D, Lim SC, Richmond BM, Gibbs A (2003) Dynamics of sandy shorelines in Maui, Hawaii: consequences and causes. In: Coastal Sediments 2003 Proceedings, Clearwater Beach, Florida, USGoogle Scholar
  87. Rosskopf CM, Di Gianluigi P, Atkinson DE, Rodríguez G, Walker IJ 2017 Recent shoreline evolution and beach erosion along the central Adriatic coast of Italy: the case of Molise region. J Coast Conserv.
  88. Ryu JH, Won JS, Min KD (2002) Waterline extraction from Landsat TM data in a tidal flat: a case study in Gosmo Bay Korea. Remote Sens Environ 83:442–456Google Scholar
  89. Sánchez-Arcilla A, García-León M, Gracia V, Devoy R, Stanica A, Gault J (2016) Managing coastal environments under climate change: pathways to adaptation. Sci Total Environ 572: 1336–1352Google Scholar
  90. Sekovski I, Stecchi F, Mancini F, Del Rio L (2014) Image classification methods applied to shoreline extraction on very high-resolution multispectral imagery. Int J Remote Sens 35(10):3556–3578Google Scholar
  91. Sekovski I, Armaroli C, Calabrese L, Mancini F, Stecchi F, Perini L (2015) Coupling scenarios of urban growth and flood hazards along the Emilia-Romagna coast (Italy). Nat Hazards Earth Sys Sci 15(10):2331–2346Google Scholar
  92. Semeoshenkova V, Newton A, Contin A, Greggio N (2016) Development and application of an Integrated Beach Quality Index (BQI). Ocean Coast Manage 24:1–13Google Scholar
  93. Serafim M, Bonetti J (2017) Vulnerabilidade das praias do Estado de Santa Catarina a eventos de erosão e inundação costeira: proposta metodológica baseada em um índice multicritério. Quater Environ Geosci 8(2): 36–54Google Scholar
  94. Servizio Turismo e Attività Culturalì (2014) Comune di Ravenna: Report sulla movimentazione turistica anno 2014. Accessed 24 July 2014
  95. Sexton WJ, Hayes MO (1981) Shoreline stability of Seabrook Island, South Carolina. Interim Rept., Seabrook Island Company, CharlestonGoogle Scholar
  96. Simeoni U, Corbau C (2009) A review of the Delta Po evolution (Italy) related to climatic changes and human impacts. Geomorphology 107:64–71Google Scholar
  97. Smith AWS, Jackson LA (1992) The variability in width of the visible beach. Shore Beach 60(2):7–14Google Scholar
  98. Smith GL, Zarillo GA (1990) Calculating long-term shoreline recession rates using aerial photographic and beach profiling techniques. J Coast Res 6(1):11–120Google Scholar
  99. Southgate HN, Wijnberg KM, Larson M, Capobianco M, Jansen H (2003) Analysis of field data of coastal morphological evolution over yearly and decadal timescales, Part 2: Non-linear techniques. J Coast Res 19(4):776–789Google Scholar
  100. Sytnik O, Stecchi F (2014) Disappearing coastal dunes: tourism development and future challenges, a case-study from Ravenna, Italy. J Coast Conserv 18(5):1–15Google Scholar
  101. Taramelli A, Di Matteo L, Ciavola P, Guadagnano F, Tolomei C (2014) Temporal evolution patterns and processes related to subsidence of the coastal area surrounding the Bevano river mouth (Northern Adriatic)—Italy. Ocean Coast Manage 108:74–88Google Scholar
  102. Teatini P, Gambolati G (1999) The impact of climate change, sea-storm events and land subsidence in the Adriatic. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on The impacts of climate change on the Mediterranean area: regional scenarios and vulnerability assessment, Venice, pp 163–184Google Scholar
  103. Teatini P, Ferronato M, Gambolati G, Bertoni W, Gonella M (2005) A century of land subsidence in Ravenna, Italy. Environ Geol 47:831–846Google Scholar
  104. Teatini P, Ferronato M, Gambolati G, Gonella M (2006) Groundwater pumping and land subsidence in the Emilia-Romagna coastland, Italy: Modeling the past occurrence and the future trend. Water Resour Res 42(1):1–19Google Scholar
  105. Thieler ER, Himmelstoss EA, Zichichi JL, Ergul A (2009) Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 4.0: An ArcGIS extension for calculating shoreline change. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1278, pp 1–79Google Scholar
  106. Umgiesser G, Anderson GB, Artale V, Breil M, Gualdi S, Lionello P, Marinova N, Orlic M, Pirazzoli P, Rahmstorf S, Raicich F, Rohling E, Tomasin A, Tsimplis M, Vellinga P (2010) From global to regional: local sea level rise scenarios, focus on the Mediterranean and the Adriatic seas, Open-File Report, UNESCO, 2011Google Scholar
  107. Vandenbohede A, Mollema PN, Greggio N, Antonellini M (2014) Seasonal dynamic of a shallow freshwater lens due to irrigation in the coastal plain of Ravenna, Italy. Hydrogeol J 22(4):893–909Google Scholar
  108. Woodroffe C, Callaghan D, Cowell C, Wainwright D, Rogers K, Ranasinghe R (2014) A framework for modelling the risks of climate-change impacts on Australian coasts. In: Palutikof JP, Boulter SL, Barnett J, Rissik D (eds) Applied studies in climate adaptation. Wiley, New York, pp 181–189Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Oxana Sytnik
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Laura Del Río
    • 2
  • Nicolas Greggio
    • 1
  • Jarbas Bonetti
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Biology, Geology and Environmental Science BIGeA, Integrated GeoScience Research Group (I.G.R.G.)University of BolognaRavennaItaly
  2. 2.Faculty of Earth SciencesCASEM, University of CadizCadizSpain
  3. 3.Laboratory of Coastal Oceanography (LOC)Federal University of Santa CatarinaFlorianopolisBrazil

Personalised recommendations