Environmental Earth Sciences

, 77:790 | Cite as

Assessment of some pristine sand deposit from Imo Formation (southeastern Nigeria) as construction aggregate and industrial material

  • Ezekwesili G. EneEmail author
  • Chidozie I. P. Dim
  • Emedo Chidubem
Original Article


Ebenebe sand deposits from the designated Imo Formation (southeastern Nigeria) were evaluated using geologic, geochemical, and geotechnical techniques to ascertain the suitability for use as fine aggregate and industrial material. Results show that this formation consists of mainly quartz that show predominance of angular to subrounded sphericity, oblate to equant mineral shapes, while elongate and platy shaped grains are rare. It exhibits poorly sorted and well-graded particles that range from fine to coarse sand-sized grains. Of all the specimens taken from this geological deposit, geochemistry is dominated by a very high percentage of SiO2 (> 96%). The concentrations of Al2O3 and Fe2O3 vary from 0.58 to 2.2% and 0.09 to 0.89%, respectively. Sands show insignificant activity on soaking with water and caustic soda which demonstrate the paucity of deleterious minerals and organics. The properties of the sand deposits are evaluated based on the depositional and geomorphological environment and processes. The properties of the Ebenebe sand deposits were compared with the characteristics of other sand deposits having proven service performance and those specified by some referenced standards which implies that the studied sands possess a high potential for use as aggregate as well as industrial material, with some beneficiation.


Natural sand Petrography Geochemistry Geotechinical Quality 



The authors are grateful to Mr. Olayinka Saluadeen for the geochemical analysis and Sir. P. N. Ukaegbu of Civil Engineering Laboratories, University of Nigeria for the engineering tests.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ezekwesili G. Ene
    • 1
    Email author
  • Chidozie I. P. Dim
    • 1
  • Emedo Chidubem
    • 1
  1. 1.Engineering and Applied Geology Unit, Department of GeologyUniversity of NigeriaNsukkaNigeria

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