Advertisement

Geochemical implications of minerals and environmentally sensitive elements of Giral lignite, Barmer Basin, Rajasthan (India)

  • Pramod K. Rajak
  • Vijay K. Singh
  • Prakash K. Singh
  • Asha Lata Singh
  • Narendra Kumar
  • Om Prakash Kumar
  • Vishvajeet Singh
  • Aniruddha Kumar
Original Article

Abstract

The Barmer Basin of Rajasthan is significant for its Paleogene lignite sequences. The lignite seam occurs in Akli Formation of Barmer Basin at the depth of 06–241 m. A total of 57 lignite samples were collected from the working faces of lignite mine and were subjected to proximate analysis (moisture, ash yield, volatile matter, and fixed carbon), ultimate analysis (carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur), elemental analysis (Fe, Ca, Mg, Cd, Mn, K, Na, Cu, Co, Ni, Cr, Zn, and Pb) and rock-eval pyrolysis for mineral carbon (MINC). Some elements like Cu, Cd, Co, Ni, Zn, Pb, Na, and K occur in high concentration, while Mg and Ca have their concentrations lower than World Clarke average. In addition, various minerals and functional groups present in the lignite samples were analyzed through X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The mineral (weight and atomic) percentage has also been analyzed through scanning electron microscopy–energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM–EDS).

Keywords

Giral lignite Barmer Basin Rajasthan Geochemistry 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thankfully acknowledge the Departments of Geology and Botany, Banaras Hindu University, for extending the facilities.

References

  1. Alper B, Gulbin G, Fatma S, Ozgur O (2008) Effect of leaching temperature and pH on leachability of metals from fly ash. A case study: can thermal power plant, Province of Canakkale, Turkey. Environ Monit Assess 139:287–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Belkin HE, Finkelman RB, Zheng BS (1999) Human health effects of domestic combustion of coal: a causal factor for arsenic poisoning and fluorosis in rural China. EOS Trans Am Geophys Union 80(17):377–378Google Scholar
  3. Bhattacharya NB, Datta A (1985) A report on the lignite occurrences around Botiya-Bharka-Thumbli area, Barmer district, Rajasthan. F.S. 1983–1984, Geological Survey of India, pp 1–8 (unpublished) Google Scholar
  4. BIS (2003) Methods of test for coal and coke (2nd revision of IS: 1350). Part I: proximate analysis. Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi, pp 1–29Google Scholar
  5. Cakir C, Budak G, Karabulut A, Şahin Y (2003) Analysis of trace elements in different three region coals in Erzurum (Turkey): a study using EDXRF. J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transf 76(1):101–106 (January 2003) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen J, Chen P, Yao D, Liu Z, Wu Y, Liu W, Hu Y (2015) Mineralogy and geochemistry of Late Permian coals from the Donglin Coal Mine in the Nantong coalfield in Chongqing, southwestern China. Int J Coal Geol 149:24–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chou CL (2012) Sulfur in coals: a review of geochemistry and origins. Int J Coal Geol 100:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cicioğlu E (2001) Investigation of geochemical properties of Çöllolar-Kışlaköy lignites. (Afşin–Elbistan). PhD thesis, Hacettepe University, Ankara (unpublished, in Turkish with English abstract) Google Scholar
  9. Compton PM (2009) The geology of the Barmer Basin, Rajasthan, India, and the origins of its major oil reservoir, the Fatehgarh formation. Pet Geosci 15:117–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dai SF, Ren DY, Tang YG, Yue M, Hao LM (2005) Concentration and distribution of elements in Late Permian coals from western Guizhou Province, China. Int J Coal Geol 61(1–2):119–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dai S, Ren D, Chou C-L, Finkelman RB, Seredin VV, Zhou Y (2012) Geochemistry of trace elements in Chinese coals: a review of abundances, genetic types, impacts on human health, and industrial utilization. Internat J Coal Geol 94:3–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Das Gupta SK (1974) Stratigraphy of western Rajasthan shelf. In: Proceedings IV Indian colloqium, micropalaeontology and stratigraphy, Dehradun, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  13. Deshmukh GP, Mishra SP (1971) Geological mapping in parts of Barmer and Jaisalmer districts, Rajasthan, Geological Survey of India,Unpublished Prog. Rep. F. S. (1969–1970)Google Scholar
  14. Finkelman RB (1994) Methods of occurrence of potentially hazardous elements in coal: levels of confidence. Fuel Process Technol 39:1817–1829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Finkelman RB (1995) Modes of occurrence of environmentally sensitive trace elements in coal. In: Swain DJ, Goodarzi F (eds) Environmental aspects of trace elements in coal. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 24–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Georgakopoulos A, Iordanidis A, Kapina V (2003) Study of low rank Greek coals using FTIR spectroscopy. Energy Sources 25(10):995–1005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gluskoter FA (1975) Mineral matter and trace elements in coal. Advances in chemistry. American Chemical Society, Washington D.C., pp 1–22 ppGoogle Scholar
  18. Gouch LP, Shacklette HD, Case AA (1979) Element concentration toxic to plants, animals and man. Geological Survey Bulletin, United States Government Printing Office, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  19. Gürdal G (2011) Abundances and modes of occurrence of trace elements in the Çan coals (Miocene), Çanakkale–Turkey. Int J Coal Geol 87(2011):157–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Habib D, Eshet Y, Van Pelt R (1994) Palynology of sedimentary cycle. In: Traverse A (ed) Sedimentation of organic particles. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 311–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology (2001) The new inertinite classification (I.C.C.P. System 1994). Fuel 80:459–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jasper K, Hartkopf-Froder C, Flajs G, Littke R (2010) Evolution of Pennsylvanian (Late Carboniferous) peat swamps of the Ruhr Basin, Germany: comparison of palynological, coal petrographical and organic geochemical data. Int J Coal Geol 83:346–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jodha BS (2003) A final report on regional exploration for lignite in Mahabar–Shivkar area, Barmer district, Rajasthan F.S.1999–2000 to 2001–2002 and 2002–2003 (part), Geological Survey of India (unpublished) Google Scholar
  24. Karayigit AI, Celik Y (2003) Mineral matter and trace elements in Miocene coals of the Tuncbilek-Domanic basin, Kutahya, Turkey. Energy Sources 25(4):339–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Karayigit AI, Gayer RA (2000) Trace elements in a Pliocene–Pleistocene lignite profile from the Afşin–Elbistan field, Eastern Turkey. Energy Sources 22(1):13–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Karayigit AI, Spears DA, Booth CA (2000a) Distribution of environmental sensitive trace elements in the Eocene Sorgun coals, Turkey. Int J Coal Geol 42(4):297–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Karayigit AI, Spears DA, Booth CA (2000b) Antimony and arsenic anomalies in the coal seams from the Gokler coalfield, Gediz, Turkey. Int J Coal Geol 44(1):1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Karayigit AI, Gayer RA, Ortac EF, Goldsmith S (2001) Trace elements in the Lower Pliocene fossiliferous Kangal lignites, Sivas, Turkey. Int J Coal Geol 47(2):73–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ketris MP, Yudovich YE (2009) Estimations of Clarkes for carbonaceous biolithes: world average for trace element contents in black shales and coals. Internat J Coal Geol 78:135–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kuder T, Kruge MA, Shearer JC, Miller SL (1998) Environmental and botanical controls on peatification—a comparative study of two New Zealand restiad bogs using Py-GC/MS, petrography and fungal analysis. Int J Coal Geol 37:3–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Liu GJ, Vassilev SV, Gao LF, Zheng LG, Peng ZC (2005) Mineral and chemical composition and some trace element contents in coals and coal ashes from Huaibei coal field, China. Energy Convers Manag 46:2001–2009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Palmer CA, Tuncali E, Dennen KO, Coburn TC, Finkelman RB (2004) Characterization of Turkish coals: a nationwide perspective. Int J Coal Geol 60:85–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Pickhardt W (1989) Trace elements in minerals of German bituminous coals. Internat J Coal Geol 14:137–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Prachiti PK, Manikyamba C, Singh PK, Balaram V, Lakshminarayana G, Raju K, Singh MP, Kalpana MS, Arora M (2011) Geochemical systematics and precious metal content of the sedimentary horizons of Lower Gondwanas from the Sattupalli coal field, Godavari Valley, India. Int J Coal Geol 88:83–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Querol X, Whateley MKG, Fernández-Turiel JL, Tuncali E (1997) Geological controls on the mineralogy and geochemistry of the Beypazari lignite, Central Anatolia, Turkey. Int J Coal Geol 33(3):255–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Querol X, Alastuey A, Zhuang XG, Hower JC, Lopez-Soler A, Plana F, Zeng RS (2001) Petrology, mineralogy and geochemistry of the Permian and Triassic coals in the Leping area, Jiangxi Province, southeast China. Int J Coal Geol 48(1–2):23–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rana RS, Kumar K, Singh H, Rose KD (2005) Lower vertebrates from the late Palaeocene-earliest Eocene Akli Formation, Giral Lignite Mine, Barmer District, western India. Curr Sci 89:1606–1613Google Scholar
  38. Reimann C, de Caritat P (1998) Chemical elements in the environment. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Roy AB, Jakhar SR (2002) Geology of Rajasthan (Northwest India) precambrian to recent. Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur, pp 1–421Google Scholar
  40. Sabbioni E, Goetz L (1983) Mobilization of heavy metals from fossil-fuelled power plants, potential ecological and biochemical implications. In: IV. Assessment studies of the European situation. Environment and quality of life series, IX, Commission of the European Communities, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  41. Saikia BK, Boruah RK, Gogoi PK (2007) FT-IR and XRD analysis of coal from Makum coalfield of Assam. J Earth Syst Sci 116(6):575–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Schopf JM (1960) Organic petrology. In: Taylor GH, Teichmuller M, et al (eds) Gebruder Borntraeger, Berlin, 1998Google Scholar
  43. Siddique HN, Bahl DP (1965) Geology of the bentonite deposits of Barmer District. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, Rajasthan, p 96Google Scholar
  44. Singh PK (2004) Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Lalmatia coal seams, Hura coalfield, Rajmahal basin, Jharkhand, India. J Appl Geochem 6(1):45–60Google Scholar
  45. Singh PK, Singh GP, Naik AS (2010) Petrological considerations for beneficiation of Indian coal. J Sci Res 54:51–60Google Scholar
  46. Singh PK, Singh AL, Kumar A, Singh MP (2011) A study on removal of selected major elements from Indonesian coal through bacteria: environmental implications. In: Proceedings, international conference on energy, environment, sustainable development, Bangkok, Thailand, March 29–31, 2011, WASET, no. 75, pp 925–935 (ISSN 2010-376X) Google Scholar
  47. Singh PK, Singh AL, Kumar A, Singh MP (2012) Mixed bacterial consortium as an emerging tool to remove hazardous trace metals from coal. Fuel 102:227–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Singh PK, Singh AL, Kumar A, Singh MP (2013) Control of different pyrite forms on desulfurization of` coal with bacteria. Fuel 106:876–879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Singh AL, Singh PK, Kumar A, Yadav A, Singh MP (2014a) Experimental study on demineralization of coal with Pseudomonas mendocina strain B6-1 bacteria to obtain clean fuel. Energy Explor Exploit 32(5):831–846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Singh PK, Singh AL, Kumar A, Singh MP (2014b) Petrographic considerations in demineralization of coal with bacteria: a new dimension in understanding the Clean Coal Technology. Energy Explor Exploit 32(4):709–718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Singh AL, Singh PK, Singh MP, Kumar A (2015a) Environmentally sensitive major and trace elements in Indonesian coal and their geochemical significance. Energy Sources Part A Recov Util Environ Eff 37:1836–1845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Singh PK, Rajak PK, Singh MP, Naik AS, Singh VK, Raju SV, Ojha S (2015b) Environmental geochemistry of selected elements in lignite from Barsingsar and Gurha Mines of Rajasthan, Western India Journal of the Geological Society of India. J Geol Soc India 86(1):23–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Singh AK, Singh MP, Singh PK (2015c) Microstructural relation of macerals with mineral matter in Eocene coal. Energy Sources Part A Recov Util Environ Eff 37:1089–1097CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Singh AL, Singh PK, Kumar A, Singh MP (2015d) Demineralization of Rajmahal Gondwana coals by bacteria: revelations from X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) studies. Energy Explor Exploit 33(5):755–767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Singh PK, Rajak PK, Singh MP, Singh VK, Naik AS (2016a) Geochemistry of Kasnau-Matasukh lignites, Nagaur Basin, Rajasthan (India). Int J Coal Sci Technol 3(2):104–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Singh PK, Singh VK, Rajak PK, Singh MP, Naik AS (2016b) Distribution and geochemistry of selected trace elements in the lignites of Cambey Basin, Gujarat, Western India. Geol Soc India 88(1):131–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Singh PK, Singh AL, Singh MP, Naik AS, Singh D, Rai S, Kumar A (2016c) Demineralization of Gondwana coal with Pseudomonas mendocina strain B6-1: a case study of coal from Gopinathpur top and bottom seams of Mugma mine, Dhanbad, Jharkhand (India). Int J Coal Sci Technol 3(2):235–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Singh PK, Rajak PK, Singh MP, Singh VK, Naik AS, Singh AK (2016d) Peat swamps at Giral lignite field of Barmer basin, Rajasthan, Western India: understanding the evolution through petrological modeling. Int J Coal Sci Technol 3(2):148–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Singh PK, Singh AL, Kumar A, Singh MP (2017) Petrological considerations for the demineralization of Rajmahal coals with Pseudomonas mendocina B6-1. J Geol Soc India 89(6):643–652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sisodia MS, Singh UK (2000) Depositional environment and hydrocarbon prospects of the Barmer Basin, Rajasthan, India. Nafta Zagreb (Croatia) 51(9):309–326Google Scholar
  61. Sykorova I, Pickel W, Christanis M, Wolf K, Taylor GH, Flores D (2005) Classification of huminite. ICCP system 1994. Int J Coal Geol 62:85–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Tabaei M, Singh RY (2000) Paleoenvironment and paleoecological significance of micro foraminiferal linings in the Akali lignite, Barmer basin, Rajasthan, India (Abstract), No. 61, Paleonology Down Under 2000 Kinrors Wolaroi Orange, NSW, Geol. Soc. Aus. IGCP 410, pp 108Google Scholar
  63. Tang Y, Chang C, Zhang Y, Li W (2009) Migration and distribution of fifteen toxic trace elements during the coal washing of the Kailuan Coalfield, Hebei Province, China. Energy Explor Exploit 27:143–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Teichmüller M, Littke R, Taylor GH (1998a) The origin of organic matter in sedimentary rocks. In: Taylor GH, Teichmu¨ller M, Davis A, Diessel CFK, Littke R, Robert P (eds) Organic petrology. Gebrüder Borntraeger, Berlin, p 704Google Scholar
  65. Turiel JLF, Carvalho WD, Cabanas M, Querol X, Soler AL (1994) Mobility of heavy metals from coal flyash. Environ Geol 23:264–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Valkovic VV (1983) Trace elements in coal, vol 1. CRC Press, Inc, Boca Raton, pp. 207Google Scholar
  67. Vassilev SV, Vassileva CG (1997) Geochemistry of coals, coal ashes and combustion wastes from coal-fired power stations. Fuel Process Technol 51:19–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Wang WF, Qin Y, Sang SX, Zhu YM, Wang CY, Weiss DJ (2008) Geochemistry of rare earth elements in a marine influenced coal and its organic solvent extracts from the Antaibao mining district, Shanxi, China. Int J Coal Geol 76(4):309–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Wang W, Qin Y, Liu X, Zhao J, Wang J, Wu G (2011) Distribution, occurrence and enrichment causes of gallium in coals from the Jungar Coalfield, Inner Mongolia. Sci China Earth Sci 54:1053–1068CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Ward CR, Spears DA, Booth CA, Staton I, Gurba LW (1999) Mineral matter and trace elements in coals of the Gunnedah Basin, New South Wales, Australia. Int J Coal Geol 40(4):281–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Ward CR, Matulis CE, Tayler JC, Dale LS (2001) Quantification of mineral matter in the Argonne Premium coals using interactive Rietveld-based X-ray diffraction. Int J Coal Geol 46(2–4):67–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pramod K. Rajak
    • 1
  • Vijay K. Singh
    • 1
  • Prakash K. Singh
    • 1
  • Asha Lata Singh
    • 2
  • Narendra Kumar
    • 3
  • Om Prakash Kumar
    • 1
  • Vishvajeet Singh
    • 1
  • Aniruddha Kumar
    • 2
  1. 1.M P Singh Lab of Coal and Organic Petrology, Centre of Advanced Study in GeologyBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia
  2. 2.Bioremediation Lab, Department of Botany, Centre of Advanced StudyBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia
  3. 3.Department of Environmental ScienceBabasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar UniversityLucknowIndia

Personalised recommendations