An experimental investigation into the compaction characteristic of granulated gangue backfilling materials modified with binders

  • Baiyi Li
  • Feng Ju
Original Article


Solid backfill mining has apparent technical advantages in extracting coal resource under sensitive surface structures such as buildings and roads; meanwhile, as an effective method of disposing mining wastes, it works well in solving some environmental problems caused by mining activities. In addition, the controlling effect of solid backfill mining is directly related to the compaction characteristic of backfilling materials. The present study aims to modify the backfilling materials by assessing the effect of binders (cement, fly ash, and lime) on the compaction characteristic of granulated gangue backfilling materials. The compaction test was performed with rock mechanic test system equipped with a self-made circular cylinder apparatus. From the results obtained, cement is not the suitable binder for modifying the gangues backfilling materials, while fly ash or lime, when the dosage is up to 20 wt%, is beneficial to the compaction characteristic of backfilling materials. The relationship between strain behavior and micro-structure of backfilling materials was investigated by SEM and the effect of fly ash or lime on the strain behavior of backfilling materials could be associated with its cementation and gap-filling effect.


Solid backfill mining Granulated gangue Fly ash Compaction 



The authors would like to thank the staffs in the China University of Mining and Technology for the help in providing the test equipment. The authors also thank the financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51674241).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.


  1. Consoli NC, Lopes LDS, Heineck KS (2009) Key Parameters for the Strength Control of Lime Stabilized Soils. J Mater Civil Eng 21(5):210–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cunningham CN, Evans TM, Tayebali AA (2013) Gradation effects on the mechanical response of crushed stone aggregate. Int J Pavement Eng 14(3):231–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Das SK (2000) Observations and classification of roof strata behavior over longwall coal mining panels in India. Int J Rock Mech Min 37(4):585–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dermatas D, Meng XG (2003) Utilization of fly ash for stabilization/solidification of heavy metal contaminated soils. Eng Geol 70(3–4):377–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dong SC, Samsonov S, Yin HW, Yao SP, Xu C (2015) Spatio-temporal analysis of ground subsidence due to underground coal mining in Huainan coalfield, China. Environ Earth Sci 73(9):5523–5534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hao Y, Zhang ZY, Liao H, Wei YM (2015) China’s farewell to coal: A forecast of coal consumption through 2020. Energy Policy 86:444–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Huang YL (2012) Ground control theory and application of solid dense backfill in coal mines. China University of Mining and Technology, XuzhouGoogle Scholar
  8. Huang YL, Zhang JX, Zhang Q, Nie S (2011) Backfilling technology of substituting waste and fly ash for coal underground in china coal mining area. Environ Eng Manag J 10(6):769–775Google Scholar
  9. Jha AK, Sivapullaiah PV (2015) Mechanism of improvement in the strength and volume change behavior of lime stabilized soil. Eng Geol 198(2):53–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jia Y, Maurice C, Ohlander B (2014) Effect of the alkaline industrial residues fly ash, green liquor dregs, and lime mud on mine tailings oxidation when used as covering material. Environ Earth Sci 72:319–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ju F, Li BY, Guo S, Xiao M (2015) Dynamic characteristics of gangues during vertical feeding in solid backfill mining: a case study of the Wugou coal mine in China. Environ Earth Sci 75(20):1389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kenai S, Bahar R, Benazzoug M (2006) Experimental analysis of the effect of some compaction methods on mechanical properties and durability of cement stabilized soil. J Mater Sci 41(21):6956–6964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Li M, Zhang JX, Deng XJ, Ju F, Li BY (2017) Measurement and numerical analysis of water-conducting fractured zone in solid backfill mining under an aquifer: a case study in China. Q J Eng Geol Hydroge 50(1):81–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mackiewicz SM, Ferguson EG (2005) Stabilization of soil with self-cementing coal ashes. World of Coal Ash (WOCA). Lexington, KentuckyGoogle Scholar
  15. Makusa GP (2013) Soil stabilization methods and materials in engineering practice. Acad Emerg Med 20(9):911–919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Muntohar AS (2005) The influence of molding water content and lime content on the strength of stabilized soil with lime and rice husk ash. Civil Eng Dimens 7(1):1–5Google Scholar
  17. Okonta FN, Ojuri OO (2014) The stabilization of weathered dolerite aggregates with cement, lime, and lime fly ash for pavement construction. Adv Mater Sci Eng 1:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Polat M, Guler E, Akar G, Morgodan H, Ipekoglu U, Cohen H (2002) Meutralization of acid mine drainage by Turkish lignitic fly ashes: role of organic additives in the fixation of toxic elements. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 77(3):372–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sharma RK, Hymavathi J (2016) Effect of fly ash, construction demolition waste and lime on geotechnical characteristics of a clayey soil: a comparative study. Environ Earth Sci 75:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Singh SP, Tripathy DP, Ranjith PG (2008) Performance evaluation of cement stabilized fly ash–GBFS mixes as a highway construction material. Waste Manage 28(8):1331–1337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Yang M, Xie Y, Pang Y (2011) Durability of lime-fly ash stabilized soil activated by calcined phosphogypsum. Adv Mater Res 168–170:133–138Google Scholar
  22. Zhang JX, Zhou N, Huang YL, Zhang Q (2011) Impact law of the bulk ratio of backfilling body to overlying strata movement in fully mechanized backfill mining. J Min Sc 47(1):73–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Zhang JX, Jiang HQ, Deng XJ, Ju F (2014a) Prediction of the height of the water-conducting zone above the mined panel in solid waste backfill mining. Mine Water Environ 33(4):317–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Zhang Q, Zhang JX, Ju F, Li M, Geng DK (2014b) Backfill body’s compression ratio design and control theory research in solid backfill coal mining. J China Coal Soc 39(1):64–71Google Scholar
  25. Zhang JX, Huang YL, Li M, Zhang Q, Liu Z (2015a) Test on mechanical properties of solid backfill materials. Mater Res Innov 18(S2):960–965Google Scholar
  26. Zhang JX, Zhang Q, Sun Q, Gao R, Germain F, Abro S (2015b) Surface subsidence control theory and application to backfill coal mining technology. Environ Earth Sci 74(2):1439–1448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Zhang JX, Li BY, Zhou N, Zhang Q (2016a) Application of solid backfilling to reduce hard-roof caving and longwall coal face burst potential. Int J Rock Mech Min 88:197–205Google Scholar
  28. Zhang JX, Sun Q, Zhou N, Jiang HQ, Germain D, Abro S (2016b) Research and application of roadway backfill coal mining technology in western coal mining area. Arab J Geosci 9(10):558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Zhou N, Li M, Zhang JX, Gao R (2016) Roadway backfill method to prevent geohazards induced by room and pillar mining: a case study in Changxing coal mine, China. Nat Hazard Earth Sys 16(12):2473–2484CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Deep Coal Resource Mining, School of Mines, Ministry of Education of ChinaChine University of Mining and TechnologyXuzhouChina
  2. 2.Norman B. Keevil Institute of Mining Engineering, University of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  3. 3.State Key Laboratory for Geomechanics & Deep Underground EngineeringChina University of Mining & TechnologyXuzhouChina

Personalised recommendations