Light transmission method to explore the migration and distribution of Cr(VI) in a sandy aquifer

Original Article
  • 58 Downloads

Abstract

The migration and distribution of contaminants in heterogeneous aquifers are mostly investigated through numerical simulations. They are rarely examined through experimental simulations because of sampling difficulties. In this study, we used the light transmission method (LTM) to explore the migration and distribution of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in homogeneous sandy aquifers with or without a low-permeability bottom and lens (heterogeneous aquifer). Experimental phenomena were observed via images obtained with a high-power light source. The migration distances of pollution plume were also monitored. Under heterogeneous conditions, low-permeability aquifer materials considerably inhibited the migration of Cr(VI) and altered the Cr(VI) migration rate of horizontal and vertical plumes spread to a certain extent. Common horizontal and vertical migration curve equations in all three conditions were also obtained through distance–time curve fitting. The difference between high- and low-concentration zones was accurately revealed, and the experimental phenomenon was further explained. The proposed method could be used for the qualitative investigation and visualization of the migration and distribution of Cr(VI).

Keywords

Heterogeneous sandy aquifer LTM Migration and distribution Stratification Lens Cr(VI) 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41302184), Scientific Frontier and Interdisciplinary Research Project of Jilin University, Outstanding Youth Cultivation Plan of Jilin University, and Key Laboratory of Groundwater Resources and Environment of Ministry of Education (Jilin University).

References

  1. Bear J, Cheng AHD (2010) Modeling groundwater flow and contaminant transport. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bonaparte LVC, Neto ATP, Vasconcelos LGS, Brito RP, Alves JJN (2010) Remediation procedure used for contaminated soil and underground water: a case study from the chemical industry. Process Saf Environ Prot 88:372–379.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psep.2010.05.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cissoko N, Zhang Z, Zhang J, Xu X (2009) Removal of Cr(VI) from simulative contaminated groundwater by iron metal. Process Saf Environ Prot 87:395–400.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psep.2009.07.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Costa M (2003) Potential hazards of hexavalent chromate in our drinking water. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 188:1–5.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0041-008x(03)00011-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Darnault (2000) Preferential flow and transport of contaminants through vadose zone. Dissertation, Cornell UniversityGoogle Scholar
  6. Darnault CJG, DiCarlo DA, Bauters TWJ, Jacobson AR, Throop JA, Montemagno CD, Parlange JY, Steenhuis TS (2001) Measurement of fluid contents by light transmission in transient three-phase oil-water-air systems in sand. Water Resour Res 37:1859–1868.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2000WR900380 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. David MT, Barnes RB, Peter RJ (1998) Synchrotron radiation measurement of multiphase fluid saturations in porous media: experimental technique and error analysis. J Contam Hydrol 31:231–256Google Scholar
  8. Dokou Z, Karagiorgi V, Karatzas GP, Nikolaidis NP, Kalogerakis N (2016) Large scale groundwater flow and hexavalent chromium transport modeling under current and future climatic conditions: the case of Asopos River Basin. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 23:5307–5321.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-5771-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Freeze RA, Cherry JA (1979) Groundwater. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  10. George HD (1979) Groundwater: R. Allen Freeze and John A. Cherry, Prentice Hall Inc, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1979, 604 pp., US $ 28 cloth. J Hydrol 47(1–2):193.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1694(80)90057-8 Google Scholar
  11. Ghosh UC, Dasgupta M, Debnath S, Bhat SC (2003) Studies on management of chromium(VI)—contaminated industrial waste effluent using hydrous titanium oxide (HTO). Water Air Soil Pollut 143(1):245–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Goswami RR, Ambale B, Clement TP (2009) Estimating errors in concentration measurements obtained from image analysis. Vadose Zone J 8:108–118.  https://doi.org/10.2136/vzj2008.0074 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Iqbal MZ (2008) Effects of layered heterogeneity in subsurface geologic materials on solute transport under field conditions: a case study from northeastern Iowa, USA. Hydrogeol J 8:257–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Krishna AK, Mohan KR (2014) Risk assessment of heavy metals and their source distribution in waters of a contaminated industrial site. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 21:3653–3669.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-013-2359-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kumar AR, Riyazuddin P (2010) Chromium speciation in groundwater of a tannery polluted area of Chennai City, India. Environ Monit Assess 160:579–591.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-008-0720-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lee MK, Saunders JA, Wolf LW (2000) Effects of geologic heterogeneities on pump-and-treat and in situ bioremediation: a stochastic analysis. Environ Eng Sci 17:183–189.  https://doi.org/10.1089/ees.2000.17.183 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lee J-Y, Kwon T-S, Park J-Y, Choi S, Kim EJ, Lee HU, Lee Y-C (2016) Electrokinetic (EK) removal of soil co-contaminated with petroleum oils and heavy metals in three-dimensional (3D) small-scale reactor. Process Saf Environ Prot 99:186–193.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psep.2015.10.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Li HB, Wang ZX, Yang ZH, Chai LY, Liao YP (2012) Static and dynamic leaching of Chromium(VI) from chromium-containing slag. Environ Eng Sci 29:426–431.  https://doi.org/10.1089/ees.2010.0313 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lorna KE (2011) Quantitative, multi-spectral, light-transmission imaging of colloid transport in porous media at the meso scale (dissertation). Oregon State University, LansingGoogle Scholar
  20. Losi ME, Amrhein C, Frankenberger WT (1994) Environmental biochemistry of chromium. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 136:91–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lunati I, Kinzelbach W (2004) Water-soluble gases as partitioning tracers to investigate the pore volume-transmissivity correlation in a fracture. J Contam Hydrol 75:31–54.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jconhyd.2004.04.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lunati I, Kinzelbach W, Sørensen I (2003) Effects of pore volume-transmissivity correlation on transport phenomena. J Contam Hydrol 67:195–217.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-7722(03)00065-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mohammad ZI (2000) Effects of layered heterogeneity in subsurface geologic materials on solute transport under field conditions: a case study from northeastern Iowa, USA. Hydrogeol J 8:257–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Niemet MR, Rockhold ML, Weisbrod N, Selker JS (2002) Relationships between gas-liquid interfacial surface area, liquid saturation, and light transmission in variably saturated porous media. Water Resour Res 38:10-11–10-12.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2001wr000785 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. O’Carroll DM, Sleep BE (2007) Hot water flushing for immiscible displacement of a viscous NAPL. J Contam Hydrol 91:247–266.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jconhyd.2006.11.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ochiai N, Kraft EL, Selker JS (2006) Methods for colloid transport visualization in pore networks. Water Resour Res.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2006wr004961 Google Scholar
  27. Oze C, Bird DK, Fendorf S (2007) Genesis of hexavalent chromium from natural sources in soil and groundwater. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:6544–6549.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0701085104 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Qin C, Zhao Y, Zheng W (2014) The influence zone of surfactant-enhanced air sparging in different media. Environ Technol 35:1190–1198.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2013.865060 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Robles-Camacho J, Armienta MA (2000) Natural chromium contamination of groundwater at Leon Valley, Mexico. J Geochem Explor 68:167–181.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0375-6742(99)00083-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Russo D, Fiori A (2009) Stochastic analysis of transport in a combined heterogeneous vadose zone-groundwater flow system. Water Resour Res.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2008wr007157 Google Scholar
  31. Tuck DM, Bierck BR, Jaffe PR (1998) Synchrotron radiation measurement of multiphase fluid saturations in porous media: experimental technique and error analysis. J Contam Hydrol 31:231–256.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-7722(97)00064-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Tziritis E, Kelepertzis E, Korres G, Perivolaris D, Repani S (2012) Hexavalent chromium contamination in groundwaters of Thiva Basin, central Greece. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 89:1073–1077.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-012-0831-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Zhao Y, Sun J, Sun C, Cui J, Zhou R (2015) Improved light-transmission method for the study of LNAPL migration and distribution rule. Water Sci Technol 71:1576–1585.  https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2015.141 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rui Zhou
    • 1
  • He Sun
    • 1
  • Zhimin Hou
    • 1
  • Ying Guo
    • 2
  • Hejun Ren
    • 1
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Groundwater Resources and Environment of the Ministry of Education, College of Environment and ResourcesJilin UniversityChangchunPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.College of MathematicsJilin UniversityChangchunPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations