Hydrogeochemical characterization and suitability appraisal of groundwater around stone quarries in Mahendragarh, India

  • Chitrakshi
  • A. K. Haritash
Original Article


The present study is the first attempt to assess the impact of stone quarrying on quality of groundwater and its suitability for drinking and irrigation in Mahendragarh region of Haryana State. The suitability for drinking and irrigation was determined by comparing the observed values with prescribed standards and indices. The groundwater was found suitable for drinking for most of the parameters except TDS, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, and nitrate. With respect to suitability in agriculture, the groundwater was classified as good with the only problem of magnesium hazard in few villages located north of mining region. Based on the ratios of different anions and cations, silicate weathering and reverse base exchange were found responsible for regulation of groundwater chemistry. Most of the shallow meteoric genesis groundwater samples were classified as Na–Cl type, and the deep meteoric genesis groundwater was classified as Na–HCO3 type. Values of base exchange and piper trilinear, too, confirmed that the groundwater belonged to either Na–Cl or Ca–Mg–Cl type. Further, FTIR analysis of crushed mined material and soil around mining area confirmed the presence of calcite and kaolinite, respectively, which confirmed that silicate weathering is regulating groundwater chemistry. The study concluded that there is no significant direct effect of stone quarrying on groundwater in Mahendragarh district.


Stone quarrying Mahendragarh Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) Base exchange Silicate weathering 



The authors acknowledge the help of Mr. Rajesh Sehrawat, Mine Inspector, Mahendragarh, for his help in sample collection and Dr. Ram Singh, Assistant Professor, Department of Chemistry, DTU, for his help in FTIR analysis of soil samples.


  1. Abdullah TO, Ali SS, Al-Ansari NA (2016) Groundwater assessment of Halabja Saisadiq Basin, Kurdistan region, NE of Iraq using vulnerability mapping. Arab J Geosci 9:223. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abiye T, Shaduka I (2017) Radioactive seepage through groundwater flow from the uranium mines, Namibia. Hydrology 4:11. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amitshreeya R, Panda RB (2012) Dust pollution in stone crusher units in and around Balasore, Orissa, India. J Ind Pollut Control 28(1):41–44Google Scholar
  4. Annual Report 2014–2015, Ministry of Mines, Government of India, DelhiGoogle Scholar
  5. APHA (2005) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 21st edn. American Public Health Association, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  6. Bayram A, Onsoy H (2015) Sand and gravel mining impact on the surface water quality: a case study from the city of Tirebolu (Giresun Province, NE Turkey). Environ Earth Sci 73:1997–2011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bhumbla DR, Abrol IP (1972) Is your water suitable for irrigation. Indian Farm 22:15–17Google Scholar
  8. Bishnoi SR, Brar SPS, Kumar D (1984) Underground water quality of Dhuri block, district Sangrur, Punjab. Indian J Ecol 11(2):220–228Google Scholar
  9. Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) (2012) Indian standard drinking water specifications (2nd Revision) BIS 10500: 2012, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  10. Central Ground Water Board (CGWB) (2013a) Groundwater Information Booklet, North Goa District, Goa, Ministry of Water Resources, Govt. of India, South West Region-BengaluruGoogle Scholar
  11. Central Ground Water Board (CGWB) (2013b) Groundwater Information Booklet District Mahendragarh, Haryana. Ministry of Water Resources. Government of IndiaGoogle Scholar
  12. Doneen LD (1961) In: Schiff L (ed) The influence of crop and soil on percolating waters. Proceedings of the biennial conference on ground water rechargeGoogle Scholar
  13. Doneen LD (1964) Water quality for agriculture. Department of Agriculture, University of California, Davis, p 48Google Scholar
  14. Eaton EM (1950) Significance of carbonate in irrigation water. Soil Sci 69:123–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gaillardet J, Dupre B, Louvat P, Allegre CJ (1999) Global silicate weathering and CO2 consumption rates deduced from the chemistry of large rivers. Chem Geol 59:3–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gibbs RJ (1970) Mechanism controlling world water chemistry. Science 17:1088–1090CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Haritash AK, Baskar R, Sharma N, Paliwal S (2007) Impact of slate quarrying on soil properties in semi-arid Mahendragarh in India. Environ Goel 51:1439–1445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Haritash AK, Kaushik CP, Kaushik A, Kansal A, Yadav AK (2008) Suitability assessment of groundwater in some villages of Rewari district in Haryana. Environ Monit Assess 145(1–3):397–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Haritash AK, Gaur S, Garg S (2016) Assessment of water quality and suitability analysis of River Ganga in Rishikesh, India. Appl Water Sci 6(4):383–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Haritash AK, Mathur K, Priyanka S, Singh SK (2017) Hydrochemical characterization and suitability assessment of groundwater in Baga–Calangute stretch of Goa, India. Environ Earth Sci. Google Scholar
  21. Jankowski J, Acworth RI (1997) Impact of debris-flow deposits on hydrogeochemical processes and the development of dryland salinity in the Yass River catchment. New South Wales, Australia. Hydrogeol J 5:71–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Katz BG, Coplen TB, Bullen TD, Hal Davis J (1997) Use of chemical and isotopic tracer to characterize the interactions between groundwater and surface water in mantled karst. Groundwater 35(6):1014–1028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kelly WP (1963) Use of saline irrigation water. Soil Sci 95:355–391Google Scholar
  24. Matthess G (1982) The properties of ground water, 1st edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. Mayo AL, Loucks MD (1995) Solute and isotopic geochemistry and groundwater flow in the Central Wasatch Range, Utah. J Hydrol 172(1–4):31–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Meybeck M (1986) Compositiondes ruisseau non pollutes de France. Sci Geo Bull 39:3–77Google Scholar
  27. Meybeck M (1987) Global chemical weathering of surficial rocks estimated from river dissolved loads. Am J Sci 287:401–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Moneim AAA (1988) Hydrogeology of the Nile Basin in Sohag Province. M.Sc. thesis, Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut, EgyptGoogle Scholar
  29. Nazzal Y, Ahmed I, Al-Arifi NSN, Ghrefat H, Zaidi FK, El-Waheidi MM, Batayneh A, Zumlot T (2014) A pragmatic approach to study the groundwater quality suitability for domestic and agriculture usage, Saq aquifer, northwest of Saudi Arabia. Environ Monit Assess 186:4655–4667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Paliwal KV (1972) Irrigation with saline water. IARI Monograph No. 2 (New Series), New Delhi, p 198Google Scholar
  31. Piper AM (1953) A graphic procedure in geochemical interpretation of water analysis. USGS Groundw Note, No, p 12Google Scholar
  32. Rajmohan N, Elango L (2004) Identification and evolution of hydrochemical process in the groundwater environment in an area of the Palar and Cheyyar River Basins, South India. Environ Geol 46:47–61Google Scholar
  33. Richards LA (1954) Diagnosis and improvement of saline alkali soils. In: Agriculture handbook no 60. US Department of Agriculture, Washington, p 160Google Scholar
  34. Saha DC, Padhy PK (2011) Effect of stone crushing industry on Shorea robusta and Madhuca indica foliage in Lalpahari forest. Atmos Pollut Res 2:463–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sami K (1992) Recharge mechanisms and geochemical processes in semi-arid sedimentary basin, Eastern Cape, South Africa. J Hydrol 139:27–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Schoeller H (1977) Geochemistry of groundwater. In: Groundwater studies-an international guide for research and practice. UNESCO, Paris, vol 15, pp 1–18Google Scholar
  37. Singh AK, Mahato MK, Neogi B, Tewary BK, Sinha A (2012) Environmental geochemistry and quality assessment of mine water of Jharia coalfield, India. Environ Earth Sci 65:49–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Subramanian V (1987) Environmental geochemistry of Indian River basins-a review. J Geol Soc Ind 29:205–220Google Scholar
  39. Wilcox LV (1955) Classification and use of irrigation water. USDA Circular 969, Washington DC, p 19Google Scholar
  40. World Health Organization (WHO) (2006) Guidelines for drinking water quality. First addendum to 3rd edn, vol. 1, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  41. Wu Q, Xing LT, He Ye C, Liu YZ (2011) The influences of coal mining on the large karst springs in North China. Environ Earth Sci 64:1513–1523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zaczek J, Porowski A (2017) Hydrogeological settings and origin of groundwater composition in Southern part of Gorce Mts, Kowniec Maly catchment. Ann Soc Geol Pol 87:183–197Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental EngineeringDelhi Technological UniversityDelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations