Carbonate sediments on decorative fountains in Peterhof, Russia

  • Oleg S. VereshchaginEmail author
  • Olga V. Frank-Kamenetskaya
  • Khristina V. Shumilova
  • Natalia Yu. Khadeeva
Thematic Issue
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Stone in the Architectural Heritage: from quarry to monuments – environment, exploitation, properties and durability


The chemical and mineral composition and formation conditions of dense grey-yellow colour crusts on the surface of monuments and bowls of decorative fountains in Peterhof (Russia) were studied using a wide range of methods (XRD, SEM, EMPA, Raman spectroscopy). The crusts consisted of calcium carbonates (monohydrocalcite, aragonite, calcite), magnesium carbonates (lansfordite, nesquehonite), and Sr-, Pb-rich carbonates (aragonite–cerussite–strontianite solid solution; up to 29 wt% PbO and 43 wt% SrO). Carbonates formed on all types of materials (gold, polyester resin, marble, granite) and do not interact with it. The cause of the formation of carbonate crusts on decorative fountains is the high content of carbonate ions in water. The variety of mineral phases is associated with fluctuations in the pH and Mg/Ca ratio. Recommendations are given on conservation measures that inhibit the formation of carbonate layers that threaten the preservation of the cultural heritage of this UNESCO World Heritage Site.


Peterhof Decorative fountains Cultural heritage Monohydrocalcite Aragonite Lansfordite Nesquehonite 



Scientific research was performed at the Research Park of St. Petersburg State University Interdisciplinary Centre for Nanotechnology (analyst O.S. Medvedev), Centre for Geo-Environmental Research and Modelling (Geomodel; analysts V.V. Shilovskih and V.N. Bocharov), and Centre for X-ray Diffraction Methods.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Oleg S. Vereshchagin
    • 1
    Email author
  • Olga V. Frank-Kamenetskaya
    • 1
  • Khristina V. Shumilova
    • 2
  • Natalia Yu. Khadeeva
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Earth ScienceSaint Petersburg State UniversitySt. PetersburgRussia
  2. 2.OOO Restoration Workshop “Nasledie”St. PetersburgRussia
  3. 3.SMR “Peterhof”St. PetersburgRussia

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