Investigation of microrubbers, microplastics and heavy metals in street dust: a study in Bushehr city, Iran

Abstract

This study aimed to (1) investigate microrubbers (MRs) for the first time and identify microplastics (MPs) in street dust, (2) determine the physicochemical and mineralogical characteristics and morphology of dust particles, (3) understand the concentration and the possible source(s) of heavy metals/metalloids, (4) identify the chemical speciation and mobility potential of trace metals in urban street dusts, and (5) determine adverse health effects of street dust on children and adults living in the city of Bushehr in southwestern Iran. Generally, twenty four street dust samples were collected and analyzed. Calculated enrichment factors indicate high levels of contamination. Statistical analysis reveals that the two main sources of trace elements include road traffic emissions (Cu, Zn, Sb, Hg, Pb, Mo) and re-suspended soil particles (Al, Mn, Ni, Ti, Cd, Co). BCR sequential extraction results indicated that As, Zn, Cu, and Pb mainly occur in the exchangeable fraction and hence are highly bioavailable. X-ray powder diffraction analysis revealed the presence of calcite, dolomite, quartz, and magnetite. The size distribution of dust particles was also investigated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), while elemental distribution was analyzed using an attached energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM–EDS) unit. Dust particles from heavy traffic areas are much finer compared with other investigated areas. MPs and MRs, mostly fibers and fragments, were detected in all samples [ranging from 210 to 1658 (MPs) and 44 to 782 (MRs) items/10 g dust] using fluorescence microscopy. The hazard index for As is higher than 10−4 for children and adults indicative of high risk. According to the calculated potential ecological risk index, Hg indicated moderate ecological risk in the street dust of the study area.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10

References

  1. Adachi K, Tainosho Y (2004) Characterization of heavy metal particles embedded in tire dust. Environ Int 30:1009–1017

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Al-Khashman OA (2007) Determination of metal accumulation in deposited street dusts in Amman, Jordan. Environ Geochem Health 29(1):1–10

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Al-Radady AS, Davis BE, French MJ (1994) Distribution of lead inside the home: case studies in the north of England. Sci Total Environ 145:143–156

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Andrady AL (2011) Microplastics in the marine environment. Mar Pollut Bull 62(8):1596–1605

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Arslan H (2001) Heavy metals in street dust in Bursa, Turkey. J Trace Microprobe Tech 19(3):439–445

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Arthur C, Baker J, Bamford H (2009) Proceedings of the international research workshop on the occurrence, effects and fate of microplastic marine debris, p 49 (NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS-OR&R-30)

  7. Banaei MH, Bybordi M, Moameni A, Malakouti MJ (2005) The soils of Iran: new achievements in perception, management and use. Agricultural Research and Education Organization and Soil and Water Research Institute, Tehran (in Persian)

  8. Banerjee ADK (2003) Heavy metal levels and solid phase speciation in street dusts of Delhi, India. Environ Pollut 123:95–105

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Barboza LGA, Gimenez BCG (2015) Microplastics in the marine environment: current trends and future perspectives. Mar Pollut Bull. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.06.008

    Google Scholar 

  10. Belzunce-Segarra MJ, Bacon JR, Prego R, Wilson MJ (1997) Chemical forms of heavy metals in surface sediments of the San Simon inlet, Ria de Vigo, Galicia. Environ Sci Health A32(5):1271–1292

    Google Scholar 

  11. Bruemer GW, Gerth J, Tiller KG (1988) Reaction kinetics of the adsorption and desorption of nickel, zinc and cadmium by goethite: 1. Adsorption and diffusion of metals. J Soil Sci 39:37–52

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Camatini M, Crosta GF, Dolukhanyan T, Sung C, Giuliani G, Corbetta GM, Cencetti S, Regazzoni C (2001) Microcharacterization and identification of tire debris in heterogeneous laboratory and environmental specimens. Mater Charact 46:271–283

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Carpenter EJ, Smith KL (1972) Plastics on the Sargasso sea surface. Science 175(4027):1240–1241

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Chen CW, Kao CM, Chen CF, Dong CD (2007) Distribution and accumulation of heavy metals in sediments of Kaohsiung Harbor, Taiwan. Chemosphere 66(8):1431–1440

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Chon HT, Kim KW, Kim JY (1995) Metal contamination of soils and dusts in Seoul metropolitan city, Korea. Environ Geochem Health 17(3):139–146

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Christoforidis A, Stamatis N (2009) Heavy metal contamination in street dust and roadside soil along the major national road in Kavala’s region, Greece. Geoderma 151(3):257–263

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Cincinelli A, Scopetani C, Chelazzi D, Lombardini E, Martellini T, Katsoyiannis A, Corsolini S (2017) Microplastic in the surface waters of the Ross Sea (Antarctica): occurrence, distribution and characterization by FTIR. Chemosphere 175:391–400

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Claessens M, De Meester S, Van Landuyt L, De Clerck K, Janssen CR (2011) Occurrence and distribution of microplastics in marine sediments along the Belgian coast. Mar Pollut Bull 62:2199–2204

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Cole M, Lindeque P, Halsband C, Galloway TS (2011) Microplastics as contaminants in the marine environment: a review. Mar Pollut Bull 62(12):2588–2597

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Costa MF, Ivar do Sul JA, Silva-Cavalcanti JS, Araujo MC, Spengler A, Tourinho PS (2010) On the importance of size of plastic fragments and pellets on the strandline: a snapshot of a Brazilian beach. Environ Monit Assess 168:299–304

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Cowherd C, Muleski G, Engelhart P, Gillete D (1985) Rapid assessment of exposure to particulate emissions from surface contamination. Prepared for EPA Office of Health and Environmental Assessment. EPA/600/8-85/002

  22. Davies TC, Mundalamo HR (2010) Environmental health impacts of dispersed mineralisation in South Africa. Earth Sci 58(4):652–666

    Google Scholar 

  23. De Miguel E, Llamas JF, Chacón E, Berg T, Larssen S, Røyset O, Vadset M (1997) Origin and patterns of distribution of trace elements in street dust: unleaded petrol and urban lead. Atmos Environ 31(17):2733–2740

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. De Sá LC, Luís LG, Guilhermino L (2015) Effects of microplastics on juveniles of the common goby (Pomatoschistus microps): confusion with prey, reduction of the predatory performance and efficiency, and possible influence of developmental conditions. Environ Pollut 196:359–362

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Dehghani S, Moore F, Akhbarizadeh R (2017) Microplastic pollution in deposited urban dust, Tehran metropolis, Iran. Environ Sci Pollut Res. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-9674-1

    Google Scholar 

  26. Dris R, Gasperi J, Mirande C, Mandin C, Guerrouache M, Langlois V, Tassin B (2016) A first overview of textile fibers, including microplastics, in indoor and outdoor environments. Environ Pollut. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2016.12.013

    Google Scholar 

  27. Duis K, Coors A (2016) Microplastics in the aquatic and terrestrial environment: sources (with a specific focus on personal care products), fate and effects. Environ Sci Eur 28:1–25

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Duzgoren-Aydin NS, Wong CSC, Song ZG, Song ZG, Aydin A, Li XD, You M (2006) Fate of heavy metal contaminants in road dusts and gully sediments in Guangzhou, SE China: a chemical and mineralogical assessment. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 12(2):374–389

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Fendall LS, Sewell MA (2009) Contributing to marine pollution by washing your face: microplastics in facial cleansers. Mar Pollut Bull 58(8):1225–1228

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Ferreira-Baptista L, De Miguel E (2005) Geochemistry and risk assessment of street dust in Luanda, Angola: a tropical urban environment. Atmos Environ 39:4501–4512

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Filella M (2015) Questions of size and numbers in environmental research on microplastics: methodological and conceptual aspects. Environ Chem. https://doi.org/10.1071/EN15012

    Google Scholar 

  32. Filgueiras AV, Lavilla I, Bendicho C (2002) Chemical sequential extraction for metal partitioning in environmental solid samples. J Environ Monit 4(6):823–857

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Gallagher A, Rees A, Rowe R, Stevens J, Wright P (2016) Microplastics in the Solent estuarine complex, UK: an initial assessment. Mar Pollut Bull 102:243–249

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Gee GW, Bauder JW (1986) Particle-size analysis. In: Methods of soil analysis: part 1—physical and mineralogical methods, (methodsofsoilan1), pp 383–411

  35. Guerranti C, Cannas S, Scopetani C, Fastelli P, Cincinelli A, Renzi M (2017) Plastic litter in aquatic environments of Maremma Regional Park (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy): contribution by the Ombrone river and levels in marine sediments. Mar Pollut Bull. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.02.021

    Google Scholar 

  36. Hakanson L (1980) An ecological risk index for aquatic pollution control. A sedimen-tological approach. Water Res 14:975–1001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Healy M, Harrison P, Aslam M, Davis S, Wilson C (2008) Lead sulphide and traditional preparations: routes for ingestion, and solubility and reactions in gastric fluid. J Clin Pharm Ther 7:169–173

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Hidalgo-Ruz V, Gutow L, Thompson RC, Thiel M (2012) Microplastics in the marine environment: a review of the methods used for identification and quantification. Environ Sci Technol 46:3060–3075

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Iqbal J, Shah MH (2011) Distribution, correlation and risk assessment of selected metals in urban soils from Islamabad, Pakistan. J Hazard Mater 192:887–898

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Kabata-Pendias A, Pendias H (2001) Trace elements in soils and plants. CRC Press Inc, Boca Raton

    Google Scholar 

  41. Keshavarzi B, Tazarvi Z, Rajabzadeh MA, Najmeddin A (2015) Chemical speciation, human health risk assessment and pollution level of selected heavy metals in urban street dust of Shiraz, Iran. Atmos Environ 119:1–10

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Keshavarzi B, Abbasi HS, Moore F, Delshab H, Soltani N (2017) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in street dust of Bushehr city, Iran: status, source, and human health risk assessment. Polycycl Aromat Compd. https://doi.org/10.1080/10406638.2017.1354897

    Google Scholar 

  43. Kreider ML, Panko JM, McAtee BL, Sweet LI, Finley BL (2010) Physical and chemical characterization of tire-related particles: comparison of particles generated using different methodologies. Sci Total Environ 408(3):652–659

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Li H, Qian X, Hu W, Wang Y, Gao H (2013a) Chemical speciation and human health risk of trace metals in urban street dusts from a metropolitan city, Nanjing, SE China. Sci Total Environ 456–457:212–221

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Li Z, Feng X, Li G, Bi X, Zhu J, Qin H, Dai Z, Liu J, Li Q, Sun G (2013b) Distributions, sources and pollution status of 17 trace metal/metalloids in the street dust of a heavily industrialized city of central China. Environ Pollut 182:408–416

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Liu CH, Cen K (2007) Chemical composition and possible sources of elements in street dusts in Beijing. Acta Sci Circum Stantiae 27(7):1181–1188

    Google Scholar 

  47. Manasreh WA (2010) Assessment of trace metals in street dust of Mutah city, Kurak, Jordan. Carpath J Earth Environ 5(1):5–12

    Google Scholar 

  48. Marin B, Valladon M, Polve M, Monaco A (1997) Reproducibility testing of a sequential extraction scheme for the determination of trace metal speciation in a marine reference sediment by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta 342(2):91–112

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. McGoran AR, Clark PF, Morritt D (2017) Presence of microplastic in the digestive tracts of European flounder, Platichthys flesus, and European smelt, Osmerus eperlanus, from the River Thames. Environ Pollut 220:744–751

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Moore F, Nematollahi MJ, Keshavarzi B (2015) Heavy metals fractionation in surface sediments of Gowatr bay-Iran. Environ monit assess 187(1):4117

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Opher T, Friedler E (2010) Factors affecting highway runoff quality. Urban Water J 7(3):155–172

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Ordonez A, Loredo J, De Miguel E, Charlesworth S (2003) Distribution of heavy metals in the street dusts and soils of an industrial city in Northern Spain. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 44(2):0160–0170

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Pan Y, Wang Y, Sun Y, Tian S, Cheng M (2013) Size-resolved aerosol trace elements at a rural mountainous site in Northern China: importance of regional transport. Sci Total Environ 18(461–462):761–771

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Possatto FE, Barletta M, Costa MF, Ivair do Sul JA, Dantas DV (2011) Plastic debris ingestion by marine catfish: an unexpected fisheries impact. Mar Pollut Bull 62(5):1098–1102

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Prabhakar G, Sorooshian A, Toffol E, Arellano AF, Betterton EA (2014) Spatiotemporal distribution of airborne particulate metals and metalloids in a populated arid region. Atmos Environ 92:339–347. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.04.044

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Qi L, Gregoire DC (2000) Determination of trace elements in twenty-six Chinese geochemistry reference materials by inductively coupled plasma-mass spec trometry. Geostand Geoanal Res 24:51–63

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Ram SS, Kumar RV, Chaudhuri P, Chanda S, Santra SC, Sudarshan M, Chakraborty A (2014) Physico-chemical characterization of street dust and re-suspended dust on plant canopies: an approach for finger printing the urban environment. Ecol Ind 36:334–338

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Rasmussen PE, Subramanian KS, Jessiman BJ (2001) A multi-element profile of house dust in relation to exterior dust and soils in the city of Ottawa, Canada. Sci Total Environ 267(1):125–140

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Rastegari Mehr M, Keshavarzi B, Moore F, Sacchi E et al (2016) Contamination level and human health hazard assessment of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust deposited in Mahshahr, Southwest of Iran. Hum Ecol Risk Assess Int J. https://doi.org/10.1080/10807039.2016.1219221

    Google Scholar 

  60. Rauret G, López-Sánchez J-F, Sahuquillo A, Barahona E, Lachica M, Ure A et al (2000) Application of a modified BCR sequential extraction (three-step) procedure for the determination of extractable trace metal contents in a sewage sludge amended soil reference material (CRM 483), complemented by a three-year stability study of acetic acid and EDTA extractable metal content. J Environ Monit 2(3):228–233

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Rocha-Santos T, Duarte AC (2015) A critical overview of the analytical approaches to the occurrence, the fate and the behavior of microplastics in the environment. TrAC Trends Anal Chem 65:47–53

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Rodríguez L et al (2009) Heavy metal distribution and chemical speciation in tailings and soils around a Pb–Zn mine in Spain. J Environ Manag 90(2):1106–1116

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Rudnick RL, Gao S (2003) Composition of the continental crust, vol 3. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 1–64

    Google Scholar 

  64. Ryan J, Estefan G, Rashid A (2007) Soil and plant analysis laboratory manual. ICARDA, Beirut

    Google Scholar 

  65. Saeedi M, Li LY, Salmanzadeh M (2012) Heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: pollution and ecological risk assessment in street dust of Tehran. J Hazard Mater 227–228:9–17

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Schwarz TL, Tempel BL, Papazian DM, Jan YN, Jan LY (1988) Multiple potassium-channel components are produced by alternative splicing at the Shaker locus in Drosophila. Nature 331(6152):137–142

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Selinus O (2005) Essentials of medical geology impacts of the natural environment on public health. Academic Press, London

    Google Scholar 

  68. Shi GT, Chen ZL, Xu SY, Zhang J, Wang L, Bi CJ et al (2008) Potentially toxic metal contamination of urban soils and roadside dust in Shanghai, China. Environ Pollut 156:251–260

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Shi G, Chen Z, Bi C, Li Y, Teng J, Wang L, Xu S (2010) Comprehensive assessment of toxic metals in urban and suburban street deposited sediments (SDSs) in the biggest metropolitan area of China. Environ Pollut 158:694–703

    Article  Google Scholar 

  70. Shi G, Chen Z, Bi C, Wang L, Teng J, Li Y, Xu S (2011) A comparative study of health risk of potentially toxic metals in urban and suburban road dust in the most populated city of China. Atmos Environ 45:764–771

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. Soltani N, Keshavarzi B, Moore F, Tavakol T, Lahijanzadeh AR, Jaafarzadeh N, Kermani M (2015) Ecological and human health hazards of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in road dust of Isfahan metropolis, Iran. Sci Total Environ 505:712–723. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.09.097

    Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Sorooshian A, Csavina J, Shingler T, Dey S, Brechtel FJ, Sáez AE, Betterton EA (2012) Hygroscopic and chemical properties of aerosols collected near a copper smelter: implications for public and environmental health. Environ Sci Technol 46:9473–9480

    Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Stolte A, Forster S, Gerdts G, Schubert H (2015) Microplastic concentrations in beach sediments along the German Baltic coast. Mar Pollut Bull 99:216–229

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Sun Y, Zhou Q, Xie X, Liu R (2010) Spatial, sources and risk assessment of heavy metal contamination of urban soils in typical regions of Shenyang, China. J Hazard Mater 174:455–462

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Tanner PA, Ma HL, Yu PK (2008) Fingerprinting metals in urban street dust of Beijing, Shanghai, and Hong kong. Environ Sci Technol 42:7111–7117

    Article  Google Scholar 

  76. Thompson RC, Olsen Y, Mitchell RP, Davis A, Rowland SJ, John AWG, McGonigle D, Russel AE (2004) Lost at sea: Where is all the plastic? Science 304(5672):838

    Article  Google Scholar 

  77. Tokalıoglu S, Kartal S (2005) Multivariate analysis of the data and speciation of heavy metals in street dust samples from the Organized Industrial District in Kayseri (Turkey). Atmos Environ 40:2797–2805

    Article  Google Scholar 

  78. Tomasevic M, Anicic M (2010) Trace element content in urban tree leaves and SEM-EDAX characterisation of deposited particles. Phys Chem Technol 8(1):1–13

    Google Scholar 

  79. Tomlinson DL, Wilson JG, Harris CR, Jeffrey DW (1980) Problems in the assessment of heavy-metal levels in estuaries and the formation of a pollution index. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen 33:566–575

    Article  Google Scholar 

  80. Tüzen M (2003) Investigation of heavy metal levels in street dust samples in Tokat, Turkey. J Trace Microprobe Tech 21(3):513–521

    Article  Google Scholar 

  81. UNESCO (1977) Map of world distribution of arid regions. Centre national de la recherche scientifique, Paris

    Google Scholar 

  82. Ure A, Davidson C (2008) Chemical speciation in the environment. Wiley, Hoboken

    Google Scholar 

  83. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1986) Superfund public health evaluation manual. EPA/540/1–86/060

  84. US Environmental Protection Agency (1991) Risk assessment guidance for superfund: volume I—human health evaluation manual (part B, development of risk-based preliminary remediation goals). EPA/540/R-92/003

  85. US Environmental Protection Agency (1996) Soil screening guidance: technical background document. EPA/540/R95/128

  86. US Environmental Protection Agency (2001) Supplemental guidance for developing soil screening levels for superfund sites. OSWER, 9355.4-24

  87. US Environmental Protection Agency (2002) Supplemental guidance for developing soil screening levels for superfund sites. OSWER, 9355.4-24

  88. US Environmental Protection Agency (2011) Exposure factors handbook: 2011, edition. National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, Washington, DC 20460, EPA/600/R-09/052F

  89. Van Cauwenberghe L, Vanreusel A, Mees J, Janssen CR (2013) Microplastic pollution in deep-sea sediments. Environ Pollut. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2013.08.013

    Google Scholar 

  90. Van den Berg R (1995) Human exposure to soil contamination: a qualitative and quantitative analysis towards proposals for human toxicological intervention values. RIVM Report No. 725201011. National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands

  91. Wang HY, Lu SG (2011) Spatial distribution, source identification and affecting factors of heavy metals contamination in urban–suburban soils of Lishui city, China. Environ Earth Sci 64:1921–1929

    Article  Google Scholar 

  92. Wei B, Jiang F, Li X, Mu S (2010) Heavy metal induced ecological risk in the city of Urumqi, NW China. Environ Monit Assess 160:33–45

    Article  Google Scholar 

  93. Wong CSC, Li X, Thornton I (2006) Urban environmental geochemistry of trace metals. Environ Pollut 142:1–16

    Article  Google Scholar 

  94. Xia X, Chen X, Liu R, Liu H (2011) Heavy metals in urban soils with various types of land use in Beijing, China. J Hazard Mater 186:2043–2050

    Article  Google Scholar 

  95. Yan C, Li Q, Zhang X, Li G (2010) Mobility and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments of Xiamen Bay and its adjacent areas, China. Environ Earth Sci 60(7):1469–1479

    Article  Google Scholar 

  96. Yongming H, Peixuan D, Junji C, Posmentier ES (2006) Multivariate analysis of heavy metal contamination in urban dusts of Xi’an, Central China. Sci Total Environ 355:176–186

    Article  Google Scholar 

  97. Yuan GL, Sun TH, Han P, Li J, Lang XX (2014) Source identification and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in topsoil using environmental geochemical mapping: typical urban renewal area in Beijing. J Geochem Explor 136:40–47

    Article  Google Scholar 

  98. Zarasvandi A (2009) Environmental impacts of dust storms in the Khuzestan Province. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Khuzestan province, p 375. Internal Report

  99. Zhu Y, Hinds WC, Kim S, Sioutas C (2002) Concentration and size distribution of ultrafine particles near a major highway. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 52(9):1032–1042

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This research was financially supported by Bushehr Environmental Protection Office. The authors wish to express their gratitude to the Research Committee and Medical Geology Center of Shiraz University for logistic help.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Behnam Keshavarzi.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 90 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Abbasi, S., Keshavarzi, B., Moore, F. et al. Investigation of microrubbers, microplastics and heavy metals in street dust: a study in Bushehr city, Iran. Environ Earth Sci 76, 798 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-017-7137-0

Download citation

Keywords

  • Microrubbers
  • Microplastics
  • Heavy metals
  • Bushehr
  • Risk assessment
  • SEM–EDS