Environmental Earth Sciences

, 76:618 | Cite as

Study on coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical processes in column bentonite test

Thematic Issue
  • 202 Downloads
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. DECOVALEX 2015

Abstract

An unconventional numerical scheme is developed to simulate coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes in partially saturated medium. The non-isothermal, unsaturated fluid flow and mechanical processes are sequentially coupled by updating all the state variables using cellular automaton technique and finite difference method on spatial and temporal scale, respectively. A new cellular automaton updating scheme is proposed by introducing a fast successive relaxation index, which greatly improves the computational efficiency in the simulation of THM coupling process. This is implemented in a self-developed numerical system, i.e., an elasto-plastic cellular automaton (EPCA3D), which was used to numerically reproduce the coupled THM behavior of bentonite pellets in a column experiment that was heated up to 140 °C firstly and then was hydrated simulating the resaturation of the backfilling. By using the cellular automaton technique in EPCA3D, the challenging courses of the changing boundary conditions over time and space during the experiment are conveniently implemented. The EPCA3D was able to reproduce the main physical processes of the in laboratory column bentonite experiment within the heating and hydration phase. The modeling results for the evolution of temperature, relative humidity, water uptake and axial pressure are consistent with the experimental data in terms of trends and magnitudes, which verifies the realistic simulation with the developed model and contributes to a deeper understanding of the observed phenomena.

Keywords

Coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical process Non-isothermal Unsaturated flow Bentonite pellets EPCA3D Fast successive relaxation method 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was finically supported by international cooperation project of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Nos. 115242KYSB20160017, 115242KYSB20160024), and the Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, CAS (No. QYZDB-SSW-DQC029).

References

  1. Arifin YF (2008) Thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of compacted bentonite-sand mixtures: an experimental study. Bauhaus-University Weimar, WeimarGoogle Scholar
  2. Chen G, Ledesma A (2009) Coupled thermohydromechanical modeling of the full-scale in situ test “prototype repository”. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 135(1):121–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chen L, Liu YM, Wang J, Cao SF, Xie JL, Ma LK, Zhao XG, Li YW, Liu J (2014) Investigation of the thermal–hydro–mechanical (THM) behavior of GMZ bentonite in the China-Mock-up test. Eng Geol 172:57–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Feng XT, Pan PZ, Zhou H (2006) Simulation of the rock microfracturing process under uniaxial compression using an elasto-plastic cellular automaton. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 43(7):1091–1108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gaus I, Wieczorek K, Schuster K, Garitte B, Senger R, Vasconcelos R, Mayor J (2014) EBS behaviour immediately after repository closure in a clay host rock: HE-E experiment (Mont Terri URL). Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ 400(1):71–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gaus I, Garitte B, Senger R, Gens A, Vasconcelos R, Garcia-Sineriz J, Trick T, Wiecozorek K, Czaikowski O, Schuster K (2014) The HE-E experiment: lay-out, interpretation and THM modelling. NAGRA Arbeitsbericht NAB 14–53Google Scholar
  7. Hoffmann C, Alonso E, Romero E (2007) Hydro-mechanical behaviour of bentonite pellet mixtures. Phys Chem Earth Parts A/B/C 32(8):832–849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hökmark H, Ledesma A, Lassabatere T, Fälth B, Börgesson L, Robinet J, Sellali N, Sémété P (2007) Modelling heat and moisture transport in the ANDRA/SKB temperature buffer test. Phys Chem Earth Parts A/B/C 32(8):753–766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Johnson L, Niemeyer M, Klubertanz G, Siegel P, Gribi P (2002) Calculations of the temperature evolution of a repository for spent fuel, vitrified high-level waste and intermediate level waste in Opalinus Clay. Nagra, WettingenGoogle Scholar
  10. Li L, Liu H (2013) A numerical study of the mechanical response to excavation and ventilation around tunnels in clay rocks. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 59:22–32Google Scholar
  11. Montes HG, Duplay J, Martinez L, Mendoza C (2003) Swelling–shrinkage kinetics of MX80 bentonite. Appl Clay Sci 22(6):279–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Mueller HR, Weber HP, Koehler S, Vogt T (2012) The full-scale Emplacement (FE) Experiment at the Mont Terri URL. Clays in natural and engineered barriers for radioactive waste confinement—5 international meeting book of abstracts, France, p 923Google Scholar
  13. Pan P, Feng X (2013) Numerical study on coupled thermo-mechanical processes in Äspö Pillar stability experiment. J Rock Mech Geotech Eng 5(2):136–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Pan PZ, Feng XT, Huang XH, Cui Q, Zhou H (2009a) Coupled THM processes in EDZ of crystalline rocks using an elasto-plastic cellular automaton. Environ Geol 57(6):1299–1311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Pan PZ, Feng XT, Hudson JA (2009b) Study of failure and scale effects in rocks under uniaxial compression using 3D cellular automata. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 46(4):674–685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Pan P-Z, Rutqvist J, Feng X-T, Yan F (2013) Modeling of caprock discontinuous fracturing during CO2 injection into a deep brine aquifer. Int J Greenhouse Gas Control 19:559–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Pan P-Z, Rutqvist J, Feng X-T, Yan F (2014a) TOUGH–RDCA modeling of multiple fracture interactions in caprock during CO2 injection into a deep brine aquifer. Comput Geosci 65:24–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Pan P-Z, Rutqvist J, Feng X-T, Yan F (2014b) An approach for modeling rock discontinuous mechanical behavior under multiphase fluid flow conditions. Rock Mech Rock Eng 47(2):589–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Pan P-Z, Feng X-T, Zheng H, Bond A (2016) An approach for simulating the THMC process in single novaculite fracture using EPCA. Environ Earth Sci 75(15):1150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Philip J, De Vries D (1957) Moisture movement in porous materials under temperature gradients. Trans Am Geophys Union 38:222–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Rizzi M, Seiphoori A, Ferrari A, Ceresetti D, Laloui L (2011) Analysis of the behaviour of the Granular MX-80 bentonite in THM-processes. Lausanne Swiss Fed Inst Technol Orders 7:928Google Scholar
  22. Rutqvist J, Börgesson L, Chijimatsu M, Kobayashi A, Jing L, Nguyen T, Noorishad J, Tsang CF (2001) Thermohydromechanics of partially saturated geological media: governing equations and formulation of four finite element models. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 38(1):105–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Saad Y (1981) Krylov subspace methods for solving large unsymmetric linear systems. Math Comput 37(155):105–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sugita Y, Kwon S, Lee C, Massmann J, Pan P, Rutqvist J (2016) DECOVALEX-2015 project Task B2 final report, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  25. Tadano H, Sakurai T (2008) On single precision preconditioners for Krylov subspace iterative methods. In: Large-scale scientific computing: 6th international conference, LSSC 2007, Sozopol, Bulgaria, June 5–9, 2007. Revised papers. I. Lirkov, S. Margenov and J. Waśniewski. Springer Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 721–728Google Scholar
  26. Tang A-M, Cui Y-J, Le T-T (2008) A study on the thermal conductivity of compacted bentonites. Appl Clay Sci 41(3–4):181–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. van Genuchten MT (1980) A closed-form equation for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 44(5):892–898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Villar MV, Sánchez M, Gens A (2008) Behaviour of a bentonite barrier in the laboratory: experimental results up to 8 years and numerical simulation. Phys Chem Earth Parts A/B/C 33:S476–S485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Villar MV, Martín PL, Gómez-Espina R, Romero FJ, Barcala JM (2012). THM cells for the HE-E test: setup and first results. PEBS report D2.2.7a. CIEMAT technical report, CIEMAT/DMA/2G210/02/2012, Madrid, p 34Google Scholar
  30. Villar MV, Martín PL, Romero FJ, Iglesias RJ, Gutiérrez-Rodrigo V (2016) Saturation of barrier materials under thermal gradient. Geomech Energy Environ. 8:38–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wang X, Shao H, Wang W, Hesser J, Kolditz O (2015) Numerical modeling of heating and hydration experiments on bentonite pellets. Eng Geol 198:94–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wieczorek K, Miehe R, Garitte B (2011) Measurement of thermal parameters of the HE-E buffer materials. PEBS Deliv D 2:2–5Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peng-Zhi Pan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Fei Yan
    • 1
  • Xia-Ting Feng
    • 1
  • Zhen-Hua Wu
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Geomechanics and Geotechnical EngineeringInstitute of Rock and Soil Mechanics, Chinese Academy of SciencesWuhanChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education on Safe Mining of Deep Metal MinesNortheastern UniversityShenyangChina

Personalised recommendations