Environmental Earth Sciences

, 76:187 | Cite as

Investigation of seawater intrusion using stable and radioisotopes at coastal area south of Beirut, the Capital of Lebanon

  • Omar El Samad
  • Rana BaydounEmail author
  • Maria Aoun
  • Kamal Slim
Original Article


In this study, field measurements were made and environmental isotopes and radiological properties were determined in six selected wells located in the coastal area south of Beirut, the capital of Lebanon. It is one of the many district areas in Lebanon, threatened by the penetration of seawater into aquifers. Two sampling campaigns were carried out to determine possible seasonal variations. High electrical conductivity was observed, ranging from 1080 to 7900 μS/cm. The total dissolved solids values ranged from 530 to 5600 mg/L. This is attributed to a seawater intrusion confirmed by high chlorine concentrations that ranged from 400 to 3500 mg/L. Isotope data for δ18O/δ2H showed enrichment that is relatively small at the end of wet season due to recharge by local precipitation and infiltration. Carbon-14 ages and 234U/238U ratios confirmed the presence of young water. No radiological hazard was observed as all values lay below the guidance levels of the WHO.


Seawater intrusion Stable isotopes Gross alpha/gross beta Radium-226 Uranium isotope Carbon-14 



The authors would like to thank the International Atomic Energy Agency-IAEA and the Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission-National Council for Scientific Research for supporting this work.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Omar El Samad
    • 1
  • Rana Baydoun
    • 1
    Email author
  • Maria Aoun
    • 1
  • Kamal Slim
    • 1
  1. 1.Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission, National Council for Scientific ResearchBeirutLebanon

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