Advertisement

Environmental Earth Sciences

, 76:176 | Cite as

Impacts of land use change and groundwater management on long-term nitrate-nitrogen and chloride trends in groundwater of Jeju Island, Korea

  • Eun-Hee Koh
  • Seung Hyun Lee
  • Dugin Kaown
  • Hee Sun Moon
  • Eunhee Lee
  • Kang-Kun LeeEmail author
  • Bong-Rae Kang
Original Article

Abstract

Impacts of land use changes and groundwater management actions on groundwater quality were evaluated at the island scale with spatiotemporal trends of NO3-N and Cl concentrations in groundwater of Jeju Island, Korea. The temporal trends from 1993 to 2012 in the concentrations of NO3-N and Cl from more than 3900 wells were estimated using the Mann–Kendall trend test and Sen’s slope analysis and compared with the land use change trend for the period 1995–2009. The results indicate that the upward trends in NO3-N were associated with the expansion of agricultural lands, whereas Cl trends were considered to be affected by other factors in addition to the land use changes. In the mid-mountainous region, the deterioration in the groundwater quality by the both NO3-N and Cl was expected due to the continuous expansion of agricultural lands. In the lowland area, the NO3-N and Cl components showed different trends depending on the regions. In the eastern area, increasing trends in NO3-N were observed due to the development of new agricultural areas, while the Cl concentration was observed to decrease as a result of the regulation on groundwater extraction to reduce seawater intrusion. Our study highlights that a comprehensive interpretation of trends in NO3-N and Cl and land use changes for long-term periods can provide useful insights to prepare for suitable groundwater management plans in the whole island perspective.

Keywords

Jeju Island Nitrate-nitrogen Chloride Trends Groundwater management Land use changes 

Abbreviations

EC

Electrical conductivity

MCL

Maximum contaminant level

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by a National Research Foundation of Korea grant funded by the Korean Government (NRF2015R1A1A3A04061438) and the research project of “Advanced Technology for Groundwater Development and Application in Riversides (Geowater+)” in “Water Resources Management program (code 11 Technology Innovation C05)” of the MOLIT and the KAIA in Korea.

Supplementary material

12665_2017_6466_MOESM1_ESM.doc (132 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 132 kb)

References

  1. Babiker IS, Mohamed MAA, Terao H, Kato K, Ohta K (2004) Assessment of groundwater contamination by nitrate leaching from intensive vegetable cultivation using geographical information system. Environ Int 29:1009–1017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bakari SS, Aagaard P, Vogt RD, Ruden F, Johansen I, Vuai SA (2012) Delineation of groundwater provenance in a coastal aquifer using statistical and isotopic methods, Southeast Tanzania. Environ Earth Sci 66:889–902CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baram S, Kurtzman D, Ronen Z, Peeters A, Dahan O (2014) Assessing the impact of dairy waste lagoons on groundwater quality using a spatial analysis of vadose zone and groundwater information in a coastal phreatic aquifer. J Environ Manage 132:135–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barlow PM (2003) Ground water in freshwater–saltwater environments of the Atlantic coast. U.S. Geological Survey. Circular 1262. Reston, VirginiaGoogle Scholar
  5. Bear J, Cheng AHD, Sorek S, Ouazar D, Herrera I (1999) Seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers—concepts, methods, and practices. Kluwer Academic Publishers, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Böhlke JK (2002) Groundwater recharge and agricultural contamination. Hydrogeol J 10:153–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Booh SA, Jeong GC (2000) Saline water intrusion into fresh groundwater aquifer of eastern area, the Cheju Island. (In Korean, with English abstract.). J Eng Geol 10(2):115–130Google Scholar
  8. Bouraoui F, Grizzetti B (2014) Modelling mitigation options to reduce diffuse nitrogen water pollution from agriculture. Sci Total Environ 468–469:1267–1277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Calvache ML, Pulido-Bosch A (1997) Effects of geology and human activity on the dynamics of salt-water intrusion in three coastal aquifers in southern Spain. Environ Geol 30(3/4):215–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chang H (2008) Spatial analysis of water quality trends in the Han River basin, South Korea. Water Res 42:3285–3304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen WF, Liu TK (2003) Dissolved oxygen and nitrate of groundwater in Choshui Fan-Delta, western Taiwan. Environ Geol 44:731–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Choi SH, Kim YK (1989) Geochemical characteristics of groundwater in Cheju Island. (In Korean with English abstract.). J Geol Soc Korea 25(3):230–238Google Scholar
  13. Choi HM, Lee JY, Ha K, Kim GP (2011) The study on time series analysis of groundwater data and groundwater recharge in Jeju Island. (In Korean with English abstract.). J Eng Geol 21(4):337–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Choung SW, Woo NC, Lee KS (2004) Temporal & spatial variations of groundwater quality in Hanlim, Jeju Island. (In Korean, with English abstract.). J Geol Soc Korea 40(4):537–558Google Scholar
  15. Constantin J, Marry B, Laurent F, Aubrion G, Fontaine A, Kerveillant P, Beaudoin N (2010) Effects of catch crops, no till and reduced nitrogen fertilization on nitrogen leaching and balance in three long-term experiments. Agric Ecosyst Environ 135:268–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Eckhardt DA, Stackelberg PE (1995) Relations of ground-water quality to land use on Long Island, New York. Gr Water 33(6):1019–1033CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2010) No.1. Nitrate in drinking water. Joint Position PaperGoogle Scholar
  18. Erisman JW, Sutton MA, Galloway J, Kilmont Z, Winiwarter W (2008) How a century of ammonia synthesis changed the world. Nat Geosci 1:636–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. ESRI (2011) ArcGIS Desktop: Release 10.0. ESRI, Inc., Redlands, CAGoogle Scholar
  20. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) (1997) Seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers: guidelines for study, monitoring and control. FAO Water Reports, ISBN 92-5-103986-0, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  21. Gardner KK, Vogel RM (2005) Predicting ground water nitrate concentration from land use. Gr Water 43(3):343–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gheysari M, Mirlatifi SM, Homaee M, Asadi ME, Hoogenboom G (2009) Nitrate leaching in a silage maize field under different irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer rates. Agric Water Manage 96:946–954CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Goodchild RG (1998) EU policies for the reduction of nitrogen in water: the example of the nitrate directive. Environ Pollut 102(S1):737–740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Grath J, Scheidleder A, Uhlig S, Weber K, Kralik M, Keimel T (2001) The EU Water Framework Directive: statistical aspects of the identification of groundwater pollution trends, and aggregation of monitoring results. Final Report. Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Environment and Water Management, European Commission, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  25. Green CT, Bekins BA, Kalkhoff SJ, Hirsch RM, Liao L, Barnes KK (2014) Decadal surface water quality trends under variable climate, land use, and hydrogeochemical setting in Iowa, USH. Water Resour Res 50:2425–2443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ha K, Park WB, Moon D (2009) Estimation of direct runoff variation according to land use change in Jeju Island. Econ Environ Geol 43(4):343–356Google Scholar
  27. Hahn J, Hahn K, Kim C, Kim N, Hahn C (1994) Sustainable yield of groundwater resources of the Cheju Island. (In Korean with English abstract.). J Geol Soc Korea 1(1):33–50Google Scholar
  28. Han KE, Shin HS (2000) The study of high chloride in the coastal area of Cheju Island. (In Korean with English abstract.). J Eng Geol 10(2):150–171Google Scholar
  29. Han DM, Song XF, Currell MJ, Yang JL, Xiao GQ (2014) Chemical and isotopic constraints on evolution of groundwater salinization in the coastal plain aquifer of Laizhou Bay, China. J Hydrol 508:12–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hansen B, Thorling L, Dalgaard T, Erlandsen M (2011) Trend reversal of nitrate in Danish groundwater—a reflection of agricultural practices and nitrogen surpluses since 1950. Environ Sci Technol 45:228–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Helsel DR, Hirsch RM (2002) Statistical methods in water resources. U.S Geological Survey, U.SGoogle Scholar
  32. Hirsch RM, Alexander RB, Smith RA (1991) Selection of methods for the detection and estimation of trends in water quality. Water Resour Res 27(5):803–813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hyun GT, Song ST, Joa DH, Ko YH (2010) Characteristics of groundwater and soil contamination in Hallim area of Jeju Island. J Korean Soc Soil Groundwater Environ 15(3):44–51Google Scholar
  34. Institute of Water Resource (2013) Monitoring data of groundwater levels. Information of water resource in Jeju Island. Institute of Water Resource, Jeju Special Self-Governing Province, http://www.jejuwater.go.kr
  35. Jeju Special Self-Governing Province (2013a) Supply of fertilizers. Statistics annual report. Jeju Special Self-Governing Province, http://www.jeju.go.kr
  36. Jeju Special Self-Governing Province (2013b) Comprehensive plans for managing water resources in Jeju (2013–2022). (In Korean.) Jeju Special Self-Governing Province, Jeju IslandGoogle Scholar
  37. Jeju Special Self-Governing Province, JDI (Jeju Development Institute) (2012) Fifty years of water supply in Jeju. (In Korean.) Jeju Special Self-Governing Province, Jeju IslandGoogle Scholar
  38. Jejudo (1997) Report on the general investigation of the mid-mountainous area in Jeju Island. (In Korean.) Jeju Provincial Government, Jeju IslandGoogle Scholar
  39. Jejudo (2003) Report on the overall investigation of hydrogeology and the groundwater resource in Jeju Island (III). (In Korean.) Jeju Provincial Government, Jeju IslandGoogle Scholar
  40. Kanfi Y, Ronen D, Magaritz M (1983) Nitrate trends in the coastal-plain aquifer of Israel. J Hydrol 66:331–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kang BK, Song CK (2001) Crop growth and nutrient leaching from soil with application of urea and compost in volcanic ash soil. Korean J Org Agric 9(2):101–115Google Scholar
  42. Kaown D, Hyun Y, Bae GO, Lee KK (2007) Factors affecting the spatial pattern of nitrate contamination in shallow groundwater. J Environ Qual 36:1479–1487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kaown D, Koh DC, Mayer B, Lee KK (2009) Identification of nitrate and sulfate sources in groundwater using dual stable isotope approaches for an agricultural area with different land use (Chuncheon, mid-eastern Korea). Agric Ecosyst Environ 132:223–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kendall MG (1948) Rank correlation methods. Charles Griffin, LondonGoogle Scholar
  45. Kent R, Landon MK (2013) Trends in concentrations of nitrate and total dissolved solids in public supply wells of the Bunker Hill, Lytle, Rialto, and Colton groundwater subbasins, San Bernardino County, California: influence of legacy land use. Sci Total Environ 452–453:125–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. KIGAM (2011) Assessment of the sustainable yield on groundwater in Jeju and discovery of the functional groundwater. (In Korean.) Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral ResourcesGoogle Scholar
  47. Kim Y, Lee KS, Koh DC, Lee DH, Lee SG, Park WB, Koh GW, Woo NC (2003) Hydrogeochemical and isotopic evidence of groundwater salinization in a coastal aquifer: a case study in Jeju volcanic island, Korea. J Hydrol 270:282–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kim GB, Kim JW, Won JH, Koh GW (2007) Regional trend analysis for groundwater quality in Jeju Island: focusing on chloride and nitrate concentrations. (In Korean, with English abstract.) J Kor. Water Res 40(6):469–483Google Scholar
  49. Ko KS, Kim Y, Koh DC, Lee KS, Lee SG, Kang CH, Seong HJ, Park WB (2005) Hydrogeochemical characterization of groundwater in Jeju Island using principal component analysis and geostatistics. (In Korean, with English abstract.). Econ Environ Geol 38(4):435–450Google Scholar
  50. Koh GW (1997) Characteristics of the groundwater and hydrogeologic implication of the Seogwipo formation in Cheju Island. (In Korean, with English abstract.) Ph.D. Thesis, Busan National University, KoreaGoogle Scholar
  51. Koh GW (2006) Characteristics of groundwater and water resource management in Jeju Island (III). (In Korean.). J Korean Water Res 39(8):80–89Google Scholar
  52. Koh DC, Chang HW, Lee KS, Ko KS, Kim YJ, Park WB (2005) Hydrogeochemistry and environmental isotopes of groundwater in Jeju volcanic island, Korea: implications for nitrate contamination. Hydrol Process 19:2225–2245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Koh DC, Koh KS, Kim Y, Lee SG, Chang HW (2007) Effect of agricultural land use on the chemistry of groundwater from basaltic aquifers, Jeju Island, South Korea. Hydrogeol J 15:727–743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Koh EH, Kaown D, Mayer B, Kang BR, Moon HS, Lee KK (2012) Hydrogeochemistry and isotopic tracing of nitrate contamination of two aquifer systems on Jeju Island, Korea. J Environ Qual 41:1835–1845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kurtzman D, Scanlon BR (2011) Groundwater recharge through vertisols: irrigated cropland vs. natural land, Israel. Vadose Zone J 10:662–674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kurtzman D, Shapira R, Bar-Tal A, Fine P, Russo D (2013) Nitrate fluxes to groundwater under citrus orchards in Mediterranean climate: observations, calibrated models, simulations and agro-hydrological conclusions. J Contam Hydrol 151:93–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lee JH, Kim YG, Ryu HS (2003) Effect of soil quality and nitrogen fertilizer method on nitrogen leaching in tea garden of Jeju Island area. Korean Tea Soc 9(1):91–102Google Scholar
  58. Lee JY, Lee GS, Song SH (2007) An interpretation of changes in groundwater level and electrical conductivity in monitoring wells in Jeju Island. J Korean Earth Sci Soc 28(7):925–935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. MAFRA (Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs) (2001) Studies on improvement of soil environment and investigation for abnormal defoliation in citrus orchardGoogle Scholar
  60. Mann HB (1945) Nonparametric tests against trend. Econometrica 13:245–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mann HB, Whitney DR (1947) On a test of whether one of two random variables is stochastically larger than the other. Ann Math Statist 18(1):50–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Mishima Y, Takada M, Kitagawa R (2011) Evaluation of intrinsic vulnerability to nitrate contamination of groundwater: appropriate fertilizer application management. Environ Earth Sci 63:571–580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mtoni Y, Mjemah IC, Bakundukize C, Camp MV, Martens K, Walraevens K (2013) Saltwater intrusion and nitrate pollution in the coastal aquifer of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Environ Earth Sci 70:1091–1111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Nolan BT, Stoner JD (2000) Nutrients in groundwaters of the conterminous United States, 1992–1995. Environ Sci Technol 34:1156–1165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. O’Leary DR, Izbicki JA, Metzger LF (2015) Sources of high-chloride water and managed recharge in an alluvial aquifer in California, USA. Hydrogeol J 23:1515–1533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Oh SS, Hyun IH, Song YC, Kim SM, Kim SJ, Kang BR (2010) Effect of surplus nitrate-nitrogen in the farm on the groundwater quality. (In Korean, with English abstract.) In: Environ. Resour. Res, Editor, 21th Report of J. I. H. E. Jeju Special Self-Governing Province, Korea, 135–155Google Scholar
  67. Panno SV, Hackley KC, Hwang HH, Greenberg SE, Krapac IG, Landsberger S, O’Kelly DJ (2006) Characterization and identification of Na-Cl sources in ground water. ground water 44(2):176–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Park HY, Jang K, Ju JW, Yeo IW (2012) Hydrogeological characterization of seawater intrusion in tidally forced coastal fractured bedrock aquifer. J Hydrolo 446–477:77–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Pejman AH, Bidhendi GN, Karbassi AR, Mehrdadi N, Bidhendi ME (2009) Evaluation of spatial and seasonal variations in surface water quality using multivariate statistical techniques. Int J Environ Sci Technol 6(3):467–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Robertson WM, Sharp JM Jr (2013) Variability of groundwater nitrate concentration over time in arid basin aquifers: sources, mechanisms of transport, and implications for conceptual models. Environ Earth Sci 69:2415–2426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Saffigna PG, Keeney DR (1977) Nitrate and chloride in ground water under irrigated agriculture in central Wisconsin. Ground Water 15(2):170–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Silva I, Williams DD (2001) Buffer zone verses whole catchment approaches to studying land use impact on river water quality. Water Res 35:3462–3472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Song SH, Choi KJ (2012) An appropriate utilization of agricultural water resources of Jeju Island with climate change (1). J Soil Groundwater Environ 17(2):62–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Spalding RF, Exner ME (1993) Occurrence of nitrate in groundwater—a review. J Environ Qual 22:392–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Spalding RF, U ZK, Hyun SW, Martin GE, Burbach ME, Yang SII, Kim M, Exner ME, Song SJ (2001) Source identification of nitrate on Cheju Island, South Korea. Nutr Cycling Agroecosyst 61:237–246Google Scholar
  76. Stites W, Kraft GJ (2001) Nitrate and chloride loading to groundwater from an irrigated north–central U.S. sand–plain vegetable field. J Environ Qual 30:1176–1184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Stuart ME, Chilton PJ, Kinniburgh DG, Cooper DM (2007) Screening for long-term trends in groundwater nitrate monitoring data. Q J Eng Geol Hydrogeol 40(4):361–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Tziritis EP (2010) Assessment of NO3 contamination in a karstic aquifer, with the use of geochemical data and spatial analysis. Environ Earth Sci 60:1381–1390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Vengosh A, Spivack AJ, Artzi Y, Ayalon A (1999) Geochemical and boron, strontium, and oxygen isotopic constraints on the origin of the salinity in groundwater from the Mediterranean coast of Israel. Water Resour Res 35(6):1877–1894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Visser A, Broers HP, van der Grift B, Bierkens MFP (2007) Demonstrating trend reversal of groundwater quality in relation to time of recharge determined by 3H/3He. Envrion Pollut 148:797–807CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Wolfe AH, Patz JA (2002) Reactive nitrogen and human health: acute and long-term implications. Ambio 31(2):120–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Won JH, Kim JW, Koh GW, Lee JY (2005) Evaluation of hydrogeological characteristics in Jeju Island, Korea. Geosci J 9(1):33–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Won JH, Lee JY, Kim JW, Koh GW (2006) Groundwater occurrence on Jeju Island, Korea. Hydrogeol J 14:532–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Woo NC, Kim HD, Lee KS, Park WB, Koh GW, Moon YS (2001) Interpretation of groundwater system and contamination by water-quality monitoring in the Daejung watershed, Jeju Island. (In Korean, with English abstract.). Econ Environ Geol 34(5):485–498Google Scholar
  85. World Health Organization (WHO) (2002) Chloride in drinking-water, background document for development WHO guidelines for drinking-water qualityGoogle Scholar
  86. World Health Organization (WHO) (2011) Nitrate and nitrite in drinking-water: background document for development of WHO guidelines for drinking-water quality. WHO Press, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  87. Xu Y, Baker LA, Johnson PC (2007) Trends in ground water nitrate contamination in the Phoenix, Arizona, region. Ground Water Monit R 27(2):49–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Youn JS, Kim GP, Jung CY (2003) A hydrogeological study on high saline groundwater of Handong-ri in the eastern part of Jeju Island Korea. (In Korean, with English abstract.). J Geol Soc Korea 39(1):115–131Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eun-Hee Koh
    • 1
  • Seung Hyun Lee
    • 2
  • Dugin Kaown
    • 1
  • Hee Sun Moon
    • 3
  • Eunhee Lee
    • 3
  • Kang-Kun Lee
    • 1
    Email author
  • Bong-Rae Kang
    • 4
  1. 1.School of Earth and Environmental SciencesSeoul National UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Korea Polar Research InstituteIncheonRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Korea Institute for Geoscience and Mineral ResourcesDaejeonRepublic of Korea
  4. 4.Jeju Development InstituteJeju-CityRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations