Characteristics of deuterium excess parameters for geothermal water in Beijing
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This study investigates the characteristics of geothermal water in 10 geothermal fields in Beijing. The relationships between the deuterium excess parameter (d) and temperature, depth, age of geothermal groundwater, groundwater flow field, and Eh were investigated using geothermal groundwater samples. Results showed that (1) the average d value of geothermal water is 5.4, whereas that of the groundwater in normal temperature is 6.04. The differences are induced by the oxygen isotope exchange during the water–rock interaction, which may be more easily completed in geothermal water than in cold groundwater. (2) The d value increases remarkably with the age of the geothermal groundwater. The d value increases from 11.2 to 14.6 when the age of the geothermal water is 12,760 ± 130 a and 38,960 ± 630 a, respectively. Moreover, the isotope heat exchange for composition of the hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in the geothermal groundwater proceeds sufficiently with time. (3) The d value decreases from 5.72 to 3.03 when the depth increases from 125.13 to 3221 m. Generally, in the same area, the d value decreases with depth because the temperature is increasing. (4) The d value of the groundwater gradually reduces from the northern recharge area to the southern discharge area. The average d value is 7.31 in the northern recharge area and 5.68 in the middle Beijing Depression, whereas the d value in the southern area of Fengheying is −9.20. The larger difference in d values between the recharge and discharge areas is due to the slower velocity of underwater flow, which induces longer time for oxygen exchange. (5) The relationship between the d and Eh is complex. When Eh is <200 mV, the d value of the geothermal water decreases with the decrease in Eh. When Eh is higher than 200 mV, the d value increases slightly with the decrease in Eh. The study of the characteristics of deuterium excess parameters for geothermal water could provide a scientific isotopic evidence for assessment and exploitation measures in geothermal groundwater systems.
KeywordsDeuterium excess parameter (d value) Geothermal water Oxygen isotope (18O) Hydrogen isotope (D) Beijing
The authors wish to thank the anonymous reviewers. This research was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41402222). Many thanks should be given to the staffs in Beijing Institute of Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology.
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