Advertisement

Environmental Earth Sciences

, 75:1475 | Cite as

Geotechnical characterisation of lateritic soils from south-western Nigeria as materials for cost-effective and energy-efficient building bricks

  • C. A. OyelamiEmail author
  • J. L. Van Rooy
Original Article

Abstract

Lateritic soils which have been described as highly weathered tropical or subtropical residual soils were studied with an attempt to establish its suitability or otherwise as sustainable material in building bricks and housing development that will meet the present challenge of sustaining the environment without costing too much and maintaining a high standard of strength, durability and aesthetics. Index properties of the tested lateritic soils revealed them as mostly well graded, comprising both cohesive (silt and clay) and cohesionless (sand and gravel) soil fraction. The geotechnical analyses on the studied lateritic soil revealed a strong compressive strength with a relatively sound dry density which could guarantee a good durability in resulting bricks made from these soil materials. Further test on the strength and durability of the compressed earth bricks (CEBs) made from these lateritic soils revealed a brick with compressive strength ranging between 6.33 and 15.57 MPa which is considered to be of good strength coupled with its sound durability strength established over a period of more than one year under a complete cycle of weather and seasonal conditions. In conclusion, lateritic soils from the study area were found to be suitable as materials for bricks (CEB) with good compressive and durability strength which qualifies them as sustainable and cost-effective materials for low-cost housing development.

Keywords

Lateritic soil Compressed earth bricks Suitability Energy efficient Geotechnical characterisation and durability 

References

  1. Adam E, Agib A (2001) Compressed stabilised earth block manufacture in Sudan. Print by Graphoprint United Nations Educ Sci Cult Organ France, Pa:101Google Scholar
  2. Adepelumi AA, Ako BD, Ajayi TR et al (2008) Integrated geophysical mapping of the Ifewara transcurrent fault system, Nigeria. J African Earth Sci 52:161–166. doi: 10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2008.07.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adeyemi GO (2003) The influence of topography on some engineering and geological characteristics of two sand-stone-derived lateritic soils from Ishara, SW Nigeria. J Appl Sci Technol 3:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Adeyemi GO, Oyeyemi F (2000) Geotechnical basis for failure of sections of the Lagos-Ibadan expressway, south western Nigeria. Bull Eng Geol Environ doi: 10.1007/s100649900016
  5. Adeyemi GO, Wahab KA (2008) Variability in the geotechnical properties of a lateritic soil from south western Nigeria. Bull Eng Geol Environ. doi: 10.1007/s10064-008-0137-2 Google Scholar
  6. Adeyemi GO, Afolagboye LO, Chukwuemeka AC (2015) Geotechnical properties of non-crystalline coastal plain sand derived lateritic soils from Ogua, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Afr J Sci Technol Innov Dev 1–6. doi: 10.1080/20421338.2015.1078105
  7. Afolagboye LO, Talabi AO, Akinola OO (2015) Evaluation of selected basement complex rocks from Ado-Ekiti, SW Nigeria, as source of road construction aggregates. Bull Eng Geol Environ. doi: 10.1007/s10064-015-0766-1 Google Scholar
  8. Al-Jabri K, Shoukry H (2014) Use of nano-structured waste materials for improving mechanical, physical and structural properties of cement mortar. Constr Build Mater 73:636–644. doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.10.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Arumala JO (2007) Compressed earth building blocks for affordable housing. In: The construction and building research conference of the Royal Institution of Chartered SurveyorsGoogle Scholar
  10. Australia Standards, Walker P (2002) HB 195 The Australian earth building handbook. Standards Australia International, SydneyGoogle Scholar
  11. Bachar M, Azzouz L, Rabehi M, Mezghiche B (2014) Characterization of a stabilized earth concrete and the effect of incorporation of aggregates of cork on its thermo-mechanical properties: experimental study and modeling. doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.09.106
  12. Bahar R, Benazzoug M, Kenai S (2004) Performance of compacted cement-stabilised soil. Cem Concr Compos. doi: 10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2004.01.003 Google Scholar
  13. Basha EA, Hashim R, Mahmud HB, Muntohar AS (2005) Stabilization of residual soil with rice husk ash and cement. Constr Build Mater. doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2004.08.001 Google Scholar
  14. Bourman RP, Ollier CD (2003) Reply to the discussion of “a critique of the Schellmann definition and classification of laterite” by R. P. Bourman and C.D. Ollier (Catena 47, 117–131). CATENA 52:81–83. doi: 10.1016/S0341-8162(02)00180-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. British Standard Institution (BSI) 1990 Soils for civil engineering purposes. BS 1377: Parts 1–9 LondonGoogle Scholar
  16. Casagrande A (1932) Research onthe Atterberg limits of soils. Public Roads 13:121Google Scholar
  17. Centre for Development of Industry (CDI), African Regional Organization for Standardization ARSO (1998) Compressed Earth Blocks (CEB) ARS 670–683. African Regional Standards (ARS), Brussels/NairobiGoogle Scholar
  18. Dada SS (1998) Crust-forming ages and proterozoic crustal evoluton in Nigeria: a reappraisal of current interpretations. Precambrian Res 87:65–74. doi: 10.1016/S0301-9268(97)00054-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Das SK, Samui P, Sabat AK (2010) Application of artificial intelligence to maximum dry density and unconfined compressive strength of cement stabilized soil. Geotech Geol Eng 29:329–342. doi: 10.1007/s10706-010-9379-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Davis JC (2002) Statistics and data analysis in geology, 3rd edn. J. Wiley Publishers, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  21. Deboucha S, Hashim R (2011) Correlation between total water absorption and wet compressive strength of compressed stabilised peat bricks. doi: 10.5897/IJPS10.551
  22. Delgado MCJ, Guerrero IC (2006) Earth building in Spain. Constr Build Mater 20:679–690. doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2005.02.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Elueze AA, Kehinde-Phillips OO (1993) Geochemical trends in weathering profiles above melanocratic amphibolite at Ibodi area, southwestern, Nigeria. J Min Geol 29(2):137–146Google Scholar
  24. Gbadegesin A, Nwagwu U (1990) On the suitability assessment of the forest and savanna ecological zones of south-western nigeria for maize production. Agric Ecosyst Environ 31:99–113. doi: 10.1016/0167-8809(90)90213-W CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gidigasu MD (1976) Laterite soil engineering. Elsevier scientific publishing Company, Amsterdam, pp 330–340, 359–376Google Scholar
  26. Giorgis I, Bonetto S, Giustetto R et al (2014) The lateritic profile of Balkouin, Burkina Faso: geochemistry, mineralogy and genesis. J Afr Earth Sci. doi: 10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2013.11.006
  27. González de Vallejo LI, Ferrer M (2011) Geological engineering. CRC Press/Balkema, Leiden, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  28. Goodary R, Lecomte-Nana GL, Petit C, Smith DS (2012) Investigation of the strength development in cement-stabilised soils of volcanic origin. Constr Build Mater. doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2011.08.054 Google Scholar
  29. Horpibulsuk S, Miura N, Nagaraj TS (2005) Clay–Water/Cement Ratio identity for cement admixed soft clays. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 131:187–192. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2005)131:2(187) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Houben H, Guillaud H (1994) Earth construction: a comprehensive guide. Intermediate Technology Publ, LondonGoogle Scholar
  31. IBM SPSS Statistics 20, (2011) IBM Corporation US. http://www-01.ibm.com/common/ssi/rep_ca/5/897/ENUS211-285/ENUS211-285.PDF (Accessed 15 Nov 2015)
  32. Jiménez Delgado MC, Guerrero IC (2007) The selection of soils for unstabilised earth building: a normative review. Constr Build Mater 21:237–251. doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2005.08.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kasthurba AK, Santhanam M, Mathews MS (2007) Investigation of laterite stones for building purpose from Malabar region, Kerala state, SW India—Part 1: field studies and profile characterisation. Constr Build Mater 21:73–82. doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2005.07.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kasthurba AK, Santhanam M, Achyuthan H (2008) Investigation of laterite stones for building purpose from Malabar region, Kerala, SW India—Chemical analysis and microstructure studies. Constr Build Mater. doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2006.12.003
  35. Kehinde-Phillips OO, Tiertz GF (1995) The mineralogical and geochemistry of the weathering profiles over amphibolite, antophyllite and talc-schist in the Ilesha schist belt, Southwestern Nigeria. J Min Geol 31(1):53–62Google Scholar
  36. Mcfarlane MJ (1990) A review of the development of tropical weathering profiles with particular references to leaching. Commonwealth Science Council, London, pp 95–145Google Scholar
  37. Millogo Y, Traoré K, Ouedraogo R et al (2008) Geotechnical, mechanical, chemical and mineralogical characterization of a lateritic gravels of Sapouy (Burkina Faso) used in road construction. Constr Build Mater. doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2006.07.014 Google Scholar
  38. Morel JC, Mesbah A, Oggero M, Walker P (2001) Building houses with local materials: means to drastically reduce the environmental impact of construction. Build Environ 36:1119–1126. doi: 10.1016/S0360-1323(00)00054-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Muntohar AS (2011) Engineering characteristics of the compressed-stabilized earth brick. Constr Build Mater. doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2011.04.061 Google Scholar
  40. Nagaraj HB, Sravan MV, Arun TG, Jagadish KS (2014) Role of lime with cement in long-term strength of compressed stabilized earth blocks. Int J Sustain Built Environ 3:54–61. doi: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2014.03.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Nigerian Geological Survey Agency (2008) Geological map of Ekiti State, Southwestern Nigeria. Elizabethan Publishing Company, LagosGoogle Scholar
  42. Nigerian Geological Survey Agency (2009) Geological map of Iwo/Ilesha Schist belts, Southwestern Nigeria. Elizabethan Publishing Company, LagosGoogle Scholar
  43. Okonkwo CT, Folorunso IO (2012) Petrochemistry and geotectonic setting of granitic rocks in aderan area, S.W. Nigeria. J Geogr Geol 5. doi: 10.5539/jgg.v5n1p30
  44. Ola SA (1978) The geology and geotechnical properties of the black cotton soils of northeastern Nigeria. Eng Geol 12:375–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Oti JE, Kinuthia J, Bai J (2009a) Compressive strength and microstructural analysis of unfired clay masonry bricks. Eng Geol 109:230–240. doi: 10.1016/j.enggeo.2009.08.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Oti JE, Kinuthia JM, Bai J (2009b) Engineering properties of unfired clay masonry bricks. Eng Geol 107:130–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Oyediran IA, Okosun J (2013) An attempt to improve geotechnical properties of some highway lateritic soils with lime Poskus izboljšave geotehničnih lastnosti nekaterih lateritnih tal za ceste z dodajanjem apna. 60:287–296Google Scholar
  48. Oyelami CA, Van Rooy JL (2016) A review of the use of lateritic soils in the construction/development of sustainable housing in Africa: a geological perspective. J Afr Earth Sci. doi: 10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2016.03.018 Google Scholar
  49. Oyinloye AO (1998) Geology, geochemistry and origin of the banded and granite gneisses in the basement complex of the Ilesha area, southwestern Nigeria. J Afr Earth Sci 26:633–641. doi: 10.1016/S0899-5362(98)00037-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Rahaman MA (1976) Review of the basement geology of Southwestern Nigeria. In: Kogbe CA (ed) Geology of Nigeria, 2nd edn. Elizabethan Publishers, Lagos, pp 36–56Google Scholar
  51. Rahaman MA, Ajayi TR, Oshin IO, Asubiojo FOI (1988) Trace element geochemistry and geotectonic setting of Ile-lfe schist belt. Precambrian Geology of Nigeria, Nigerian Geological. Survey Publication, pp 241–256. Kaduna, Nigeria. ThompsonGoogle Scholar
  52. Reddy BVV (2012) Stabilised soil blocks for structural masonry in earth construction. Mod Earth Build Mater Eng Constr Appl 324–363. doi: 10.1533/9780857096166.3.324
  53. Rigassi V (1995) Compressed earth blocks: a publication of Deutsches Zentrum für Entwicklungstechnologien—GATE, a division of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH in coordination with the building advisory service and information network. Vieweg, BraunschweigGoogle Scholar
  54. Schroeder H (2012) Modern earth building codes, standards and normative development. In: Hall MR, Lindsay R, Krayenhoff M (eds) Modern earth buildings-materials, engineering, construction and applications. Woodhead Publishing, p 776Google Scholar
  55. Taallah B, Guettala A, Guettala S, Kriker A (2014) Mechanical properties and hygroscopicity behavior of compressed earth block filled by date palm fibers. Constr Build Mater 59:161–168. doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.02.058 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Talabi AO (2013) Mineralogical and chemical characterization of major basement rocks in Ekiti State, SW-Nigeria Mineraloške in kemične značilnosti glavnih kamnin podlage v državi Ekiti v JZ NigerijiGoogle Scholar
  57. Tijani MN, Onodera S (2009) Hydrogeochemical assessment of metals contamination in an urban drainage system: a case study of Osogbo Township, SW-Nigeria. J Water Resour Prot 01:164–173. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2009.13021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Villamizar MCN, Araque VS, Reyes CAR, Silva RS (2012) Effect of the addition of coal-ash and cassava peels on the engineering properties of compressed earth blocks. Constr Build Mater. doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.04.056 Google Scholar
  59. Wolfskill LS, Dunlop WA, Callaway BM (1970) Handbook for building homes of earth. Department of housing and urban development. Office of International Affairs (OIA), Washington, p 20410Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeologyUniversity of PretoriaHatfield, PretoriaSouth Africa
  2. 2.Department of Geological SciencesOsun State UniversityOsogboNigeria

Personalised recommendations