Advertisement

Social–ecological challenges in the Yellow River basin (China): a review

  • Christian WohlfartEmail author
  • Claudia Kuenzer
  • Cui Chen
  • Gaohuan Liu
Thematic Issue
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Environment and Health in China II

Abstract

The human–environment relationship within the Yellow River basin has a long history, because favorable environmental circumstances allowed the early emergence of societies along the river banks, and hence, the Yellow River basin was the birthplace of ancient Chinese civilization. On the other hand, the Yellow River is “China’s sorrow” due to the constant occurrences of flooding events throughout history. In recent decades, the Yellow River basin is facing a spectacular economic boom, but mainly achieved at the expenses of the environment by over-exploiting the natural resources provided within the basin, which causes various challenges on ecology and society. Water scarcity, pollution, and ecosystem degradation accompanied with biodiversity decline have been further aggravated by anthropogenic-induced climate change. To address the pressing socio-ecological challenges, various conservation and management plans and strategies have been issued, often consulted by international bodies. This article is a comprehensive overview of the current state and recent developments that have occurred in the Yellow River basin and presents and discusses current and pressing socio-ecological challenges. Additionally, we address different policy and management instruments that have been launched to ensure a long-term sustainable development within the basin.

Keywords

Global change Yellow River River basin management Socioeconomic development Environmental degradation Human pressure China 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was undertaken in the context of the DELIGHT Project (http://www.delight.eoc.dlr.de/), funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, BMBF, by the International Science & Technology Cooperation Program of China, 2012DFG22050 and in cooperation with the Project RCEIS.

References

  1. Barnett J, Webber M, Wang M et al (2006) Ten key questions about the management of water in the Yellow River basin. Environ Manag 38:179–188. doi: 10.1007/s00267-005-0068-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bemelmans-Videc ML, Rist RC, Vedung EO (2003) Carrots, sticks, and sermons: policy instruments and their evaluation. Transaction Publishers, New BrunswickGoogle Scholar
  3. Bi X, Wang B, Lu Q (2011) Fragmentation effects of oil wells and roads on the Yellow River Delta, North China. Ocean Coast Manag 54:256–264. doi: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2010.12.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boxer B (2001) Contradictions and challenges in china’s water policy development. Water Int 26:335–341. doi: 10.1080/02508060108686925 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brakenridge GR (2016) Global active archive of large flood events. In: Dartmouth Flood Observatory, University of Colorado. http://floodobservatory.colorado.edu/Archives/index.html. Accessed 10 Feb 2016
  6. Cai X (2008) Water stress, water transfer and social equity in Northern China—implications for policy reforms. J Environ Manag 87:14–25. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2006.12.046 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cai X, Rosegrant MW (2004) Optional water development strategies for the Yellow River Basin: balancing agricultural and ecological water demands. Water Resour Res. doi: 10.1029/2003WR002488 Google Scholar
  8. Casey RE, Klaine SJ (2001) Nutrient attenuation by a riparian wetland during natural and artificial runoff events. J Environ Qual 30:1721–1731Google Scholar
  9. Chen J, He D, Cui S (2003) The response of river water quality and quantity to the development of irrigated agriculture in the last 4 decades in the Yellow River Basin. Water Resour Res, China. doi: 10.1029/2001WR001234 Google Scholar
  10. Chen L, Wei W, Fu B, Lu Y (2007) Soil and water conservation on the Loess Plateau in China: review and perspective. Prog Phys Geogr 31:389–403. doi: 10.1177/0309133307081290 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen Y-F, Liu Y-S, Wang J et al (2009) Land use changes of an aeolian-loessial soil area in northwest China: implications for ecological restoration. Pedosphere 19:356–361. doi: 10.1016/S1002-0160(09)60126-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chen Y, Syvitski JPM, Gao S et al (2012) Socio-economic impacts on flooding: a 4000-year history of the Yellow River, China. Ambio 41:682–698. doi: 10.1007/s13280-012-0290-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cui X, Graf H-F (2009) Recent land cover changes on the Tibetan Plateau: a review. Clim Change 94:47–61. doi: 10.1007/s10584-009-9556-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cui B, Yang Q, Yang Z, Zhang K (2009) Evaluating the ecological performance of wetland restoration in the Yellow River Delta, China. Ecol Eng 35:1090–1103. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2009.03.022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cui B, Zhang Q, Zhang K et al (2011) Analyzing trophic transfer of heavy metals for food webs in the newly-formed wetlands of the Yellow River Delta, China. Environ Pollut 159:1297–1306. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2011.01.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Deng X-P, Shan L, Zhang H, Turner NC (2006) Improving agricultural water use efficiency in arid and semiarid areas of China. Agric Water Manag 80:23–40. doi: 10.1016/j.agwat.2005.07.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dinar A, Rosegrant MW, Meinzen-Dick R (1997) Water allocation mechanisms: principles and examples. The World Bank, Washington, DCCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dong L, Wang W, Ma M et al (2009) The change of land cover and land use and its impact factors in upriver key regions of the Yellow River. Int J Remote Sens 30:1251–1265. doi: 10.1080/01431160802468248 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Economy EC (2010) The river runs black: the environmental challenge to China’s future. Cornell University Press, IthakaGoogle Scholar
  20. Falkenmark M, Widstrand CG (1992) Population and water resources: a delicate balance. Population Reference Bureau, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  21. Feng K, Siu YL, Guan D, Hubacek K (2012) Assessing regional virtual water flows and water footprints in the Yellow River Basin, China: a consumption based approach. Appl Geogr 32:691–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fu G, Chen S, Liu C, Shepard D (2004) Hydro-climatic trends of the Yellow River Basin for the last 50 years. Clim Change 65:149–178. doi: 10.1023/B:CLIM.0000037491.95395.bb CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ghose B (2014) Food security and food self-sufficiency in China: from past to 2050. Food Energy Secur 3:86–95. doi: 10.1002/fes3.48 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gilliam JW (1994) Riparian wetlands and water quality. J Environ Qual 65:896–900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Giordano M, Zhu Z, Cai X, et al (2004) Water management in the Yellow River Basin: background, current critical issues and future research needs. Comprehensive assessment research report 3, ColomboGoogle Scholar
  26. Guobin L (1999) Soil conservation and sustainable agriculture on the Loess Plateau: challenges and prospects. Ambio 28:663–668Google Scholar
  27. Gupta H, Kao S-J, Dai M (2012) The role of mega dams in reducing sediment fluxes: a case study of large Asian rivers. J Hydrol 464–465:447–458. doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2012.07.038 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hao F, Zhang X, Ouyang W et al (2012) Vegetation NDVI Linked to temperature and precipitation in the upper catchments of Yellow River. Environ Model Assess 17:389–398. doi: 10.1007/s10666-011-9297-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hijmans RJ, Cameron SE, Parra JL et al (2005) Very high resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas. Int J Climatol 25:1965–1978. doi: 10.1002/joc.1276 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hu Y, Maskey S, Uhlenbrook S (2012) Trends in temperature and rainfall extremes in the Yellow River source region, China. Clim Change 110:403–429. doi: 10.1007/s10584-011-0056-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Huang S, Li J, Xu M et al (2007) Dynamic monitoring of Yellow River Estuary based on remote sensing in the recent ten years and analysis of correlation with flow and sediment condition. 2007 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Barcelona, pp 5327–5330. doi: 10.1109/IGARSS.2007.4424065
  32. Hui Y, Zheng M, Liu Z, Gao L (2009) Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments from Yellow River Estuary and Yangtze River Estuary, China. J Environ Sci 21:1625–1631. doi: 10.1016/S1001-0742(08)62465-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. IPCC (2013) Climate change 2013—the physical science basis: working group I contribution to the fifth assessment report of the IPCC. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  34. IUCN (2015) The IUCN red list of threatened species. Version 2015.2. http://www.iucnredlist.org. Accessed 10 Aug 2015
  35. IUCN, UNEP-WCMC (2015) The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA). www.protectedplanet.net. Accessed 10 Nov 2015
  36. Jiang Y, Dong W, Yang S, Ma J (2008) Long-term changes in ice phenology of the Yellow River in the past decades. J Clim 21:4879–4886. doi: 10.1175/2008JCLI1872.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ju X, Liu X, Zhang F, Roelcke M (2004) Nitrogen fertilization, soil nitrate accumulation, and policy recommendations in several agricultural regions of China. Ambio 33:300–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kuenzer C (2007) Water pollution, scarcity and distribution challenges. Bus Forum China, 02/07, 63–65Google Scholar
  39. Kuenzer C, Campbell I, Roch M et al (2013) Understanding the impact of hydropower developments in the context of upstream–downstream relations in the Mekong river basin. Sustain Sci 8:565–584. doi: 10.1007/s11625-012-0195-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kuenzer C, Ottinger M, Liu G et al (2014) Earth observation-based coastal zone monitoring of the Yellow River Delta: dynamics in China’s second largest oil producing region over four decades. Appl Geogr 55:92–107. doi: 10.1016/j.apgeog.2014.08.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lawler A (2009) Beyond the Yellow River: how China became China. Science 325(80):930–935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Li G (2005) Maintaining the healthy life of the Yellow River. Yellow River Conservancy Press, ZhengzhouGoogle Scholar
  43. Li G, Wei H, Han Y, Chen Y (1998a) Sedimentation in the Yellow River delta, part I: flow and suspended sediment structure in the upper distributary and the estuary. Mar Geol 149:93–111. doi: 10.1016/S0025-3227(98)00031-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Li G, Wei H, Yue S et al (1998b) Sedimentation in the Yellow River delta, part II: suspended sediment dispersal and deposition on the subaqueous delta. Mar Geol 149:113–131. doi: 10.1016/S0025-3227(98)00032-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Li X, Cheng G, Jin H et al (2008) Cryospheric change in China. Glob Planet Change 62:210–218. doi: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2008.02.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Li X, Brierley G, Shi D et al (2012) Ecological protection and restoration in Sanjiangyuan National Nature Reserve, Qinghai Province, China. In: Higgitt D (ed) Perspectives on environmental management and technology in Asian river basins. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 93–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Liu C, Xia J (2004) Water problems and hydrological research in the Yellow River and the Huai and Hai River basins of China. Hydrol Process 18:2197–2210. doi: 10.1002/hyp.5524 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Liu L, Zhang B, Bi J (2012) Reforming China’s multi-level environmental governance: lessons from the 11th Five-Year Plan. Environ Sci Policy 21:106–111. doi: 10.1016/j.envsci.2012.05.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Liu J, Li Z, Zhang X et al (2013a) Responses of vegetation cover to the Grain for Green Program and their driving forces in the He-Long region of the middle reaches of the Yellow River. J Arid Land 5:511–520. doi: 10.1007/s40333-013-0177-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Liu Y, Huang H, Qiu Z, Fan J (2013b) Detecting coastline change from satellite images based on beach slope estimation in a tidal flat. Int J Appl Earth Obs Geoinf 23:165–176. doi: 10.1016/j.jag.2012.12.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lohmar B, Wang J, Rozelle S et al (2003) China’s Agricultural Water Policy Reforms. United States Department of Agriculture, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  52. Loucks CJ, Zhi L, Dinerstein E et al (2003) The giant pandas of the Qinling Mountains, China: a case study in designing conservation landscapes for elevational migrants. Conserv Biol 17:558–565. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1739.2003.01494.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ma Y, Huang HQ, Nanson GC et al (2012) Channel adjustments in response to the operation of large dams: the upper reach of the lower Yellow River. Geomorphology 147–148:35–48. doi: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2011.07.032 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Miao C, Ni J, Borthwick AGL (2010) Recent changes of water discharge and sediment load in the Yellow River basin, China. Prog Phys Geogr 34:541–561. doi: 10.1177/0309133310369434 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Miao C, Ni J, Borthwick AGL, Yang L (2011) A preliminary estimate of human and natural contributions to the changes in water discharge and sediment load in the Yellow River. Glob Planet Change 76:196–205. doi: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2011.01.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Miao CY, Yang L, Chen XH, Gao Y (2012) The vegetation cover dynamics (1982–2006) in different erosion regions of the Yellow River Basin, China. Land Degrad Dev 71:62–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Milliman JD, Meade H (1983) World-wide delivery of river sediment to the oceans. J Geol 91:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Nakaegawa T, Kitoh A, Hosaka M (2013) Discharge of major global rivers in the late 21st century climate projected with the high horizontal resolution MRI-AGCMs. Hydrol Process 27:3301–3318. doi: 10.1002/hyp.9831 Google Scholar
  59. Nakayama T (2011) Simulation of the effect of irrigation on the hydrologic cycle in the highly cultivated Yellow River Basin. Agric For Meteorol 151:314–327. doi: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2010.11.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. NBS (2015) China statistical database. http://www.stats.gov.cn. Accessed 21 Oct 2015
  61. Ni J (2011) Impacts of climate change on Chinese ecosystems: key vulnerable regions and potential thresholds. Reg Environ Change 11:49–64. doi: 10.1007/s10113-010-0170-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Olson DM, Dinerstein E, Wikramanayake ED et al (2001) Terrestrial ecoregions of the world: a new map of life on earth. Bioscience 51:933–938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Ottinger M, Kuenzer C, Liu G et al (2013) Monitoring land cover dynamics in the Yellow River Delta from 1995 to 2010 based on Landsat 5 TM. Appl Geogr 44:53–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Ottinger M, Clauss K, Kuenzer C (2016) Aquaculture: relevance, distribution, impacts and spatial assessments—a review. Ocean Coast Manag 119:244–266. doi: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2015.10.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Ouyang W, Hao FH, Zhao C, Lin C (2010) Vegetation response to 30 years hydropower cascade exploitation in upper stream of Yellow River. Commun Nonlinear Sci Numer Simul 15:1928–1941. doi: 10.1016/j.cnsns.2009.07.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Peng J, Chen S, Dong P (2010) Temporal variation of sediment load in the Yellow River basin, China, and its impacts on the lower reaches and the river delta. Catena 83:135–147. doi: 10.1016/j.catena.2010.08.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Piao S, Ciais P, Huang Y et al (2010) The impact of climate change on water resources and agriculture in China. Nature 467:43–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Qi S, Fang L (2007) Environmental degradation in the Yellow River Delta, Shandong province, China. Ambio 36:610–611. doi: 10.1579/0044-7447(2007)36[610:EDITYR]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ran L, Lu XX (2012) Delineation of reservoirs using remote sensing and their storage estimate: an example of the Yellow River basin, China. Hydrol Process 26:1215–1229. doi: 10.1002/hyp.8224 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Ringler C, Cai X, Wang J et al (2010) Yellow River basin: living with scarcity. Water Int 35:681–701. doi: 10.1080/02508060.2010.509857 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Shi H, Shao M (2000) Soil and water loss from the Loess Plateau in China. J Arid Environ 45:9–20. doi: 10.1006/jare.1999.0618 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Starvins RN (2000) Market based environmental policies. In: Portney PN, Stavins RN (eds) Public policies for environmental protection. Resources of the Future, Washington, DC, pp 31–77Google Scholar
  73. Syvitski JPM, Kettner AJ, Overeem I et al (2009) Sinking deltas due to human activities. Nat Geosci 2:681–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Tang Q, Oki T, Kanae S, Hu H (2008) A spatial analysis of hydro-climatic and vegetation condition trends in the Yellow River basin. Hydrol Process 458:451–458. doi: 10.1002/hyp CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Tao F, Zhang Z (2013) Climate change, wheat productivity and water use in the North China Plain: a new super-ensemble-based probabilistic projection. Agric For Meteorol 170:146–165. doi: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2011.10.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Tao F, Hayashi Y, Zhang Z et al (2008) Global warming, rice production, and water use in China: developing a probabilistic assessment. Agric For Meteorol 148:94–110. doi: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2007.09.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Tisdell C (2009) Economic reforms and openness in China: China´s policies in the last 30 years. Econ Anal Policy 39:271–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. UNDP (1999) China human development report 1999: transition and the state. Oxford University Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Wang H, Yang Z, Saito Y et al (2006) Interannual and seasonal variation of the Huanghe (Yellow River) water discharge over the past 50 years: connections to impacts from ENSO events and dams. Glob Planet Change 50:212–225. doi: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2006.01.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Wang H, Yang Z, Saito Y et al (2007) Stepwise decreases of the Huanghe (Yellow River) sediment load (1950–2005): impacts of climate change and human activities. Glob Planet Change 57:331–354. doi: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2007.01.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Wang S, Ding C, Liu J (2009) Landscape evolution in the Yellow River Basin using satellite remote sensing and GIS during the past decade. Int J Remote Sens 30:5573–5591. doi: 10.1080/01431160802687482 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Wang H, Bi N, Saito Y et al (2010) Recent changes in sediment delivery by the Huanghe (Yellow River) to the sea: causes and environmental implications in its estuary. J Hydrol 391:302–313. doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2010.07.030 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Wang X, Yu J, Zhou D et al (2012) Vegetative ecological characteristics of restored reed (Phragmites australis) wetlands in the Yellow River Delta, China. Environ Manag 49:325–333. doi: 10.1007/s00267-011-9757-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Wang H, Gao J, Ren L-L et al (2013) Assessment of the red-crowned crane habitat in the Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve, East China. Reg Environ Change 13:115–123. doi: 10.1007/s10113-012-0325-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Webber M, Barnett J, Wang M et al (2008) The Yellow River in transition. Environ Sci Policy 11:422–429. doi: 10.1016/j.envsci.2008.02.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Wei J, Zhou J, Tian J et al (2006) Decoupling soil erosion and human activities on the Chinese Loess Plateau in the 20th century. CATENA 68:10–15. doi: 10.1016/j.catena.2006.04.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Wen D, Zhang F, Zhang E et al (2009) Outline of the Yellow River basin, China. Bull Geol Surv Jpn 60:9–18Google Scholar
  88. Wu B, Wang Z, Li C (2004) Yellow River Basin management and current issues. J Geogr Sci 14:29–37. doi: 10.1007/BF02841104 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Wu CS, Yang SL, Lei Y (2012) Quantifying the anthropogenic and climatic impacts on water discharge and sediment load in the Pearl River (Zhujiang), China (1954–2009). J Hydrol 452–453:190–204. doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2012.05.064 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Wu Q, Hou Y, Yun H, Liu Y (2015) Changes in active-layer thickness and near-surface permafrost between 2002 and 2012 in alpine ecosystems, Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau, China. Glob Planet Change 124:149–155. doi: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2014.09.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Xia C, Pahl-Wostl C (2012) The development of water allocation management in The Yellow River Basin. Water Resour Manag 26:3395–3414. doi: 10.1007/s11269-012-0078-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Xia X, Zhou J, Yang Z (2002) Nitrogen contamination in the Yellow River Basin of China. J Environ Qual. doi: 10.2134/jeq2002.9170 Google Scholar
  93. Xiang-zhou X, Hong-wu Z, Ouyang Z (2004) Development of check-dam systems in gullies on the Loess Plateau, China. Environ Sci Policy 7:79–86. doi: 10.1016/j.envsci.2003.12.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Xu H (1999) Environmental policy and rural industrial development in China. Res Hum Ecol 6:72–80Google Scholar
  95. Xu J (2002a) River sedimentation and channel adjustment of the lower Yellow River as influenced by low discharges and seasonal channel dry-ups. Geomorphology 43:151–164. doi: 10.1016/S0169-555X(01)00131-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Xu J (2002b) Implication of relationships among suspended sediment size, water discharge and suspended sediment concentration: the Yellow River basin, China. CATENA 49:289–307. doi: 10.1016/S0341-8162(02)00064-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Xu J, Cheng D (2002) Relation between the erosion and sedimentation zones in the Yellow River, China. Geomorphology 48:365–382. doi: 10.1016/S0169-555X(02)00145-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Xu X, Lin H, Fu Z (2004) Probe into the method of regional ecological risk assessment—a case study of wetland in the Yellow River Delta in China. J Environ Manag 70:253–262. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2003.12.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Xu J, Zhang Z, Liu W, McGowan PJK (2012) A review and assessment of nature reserve policy in China: advances, challenges and opportunities. Oryx 46:554–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Yang D, Ishidaira H (2010) Profile of the Yellow River Basin. In: Kusuda T (ed) The Yellow River—water and life. World Scientific Publishing, Singapore, pp 5–24Google Scholar
  101. Yang D, Li C, Hu H et al (2004a) Analysis of water resources variability in the Yellow River of China during the last half century using historical data. Water Resour Res. doi: 10.1029/2003WR002763 Google Scholar
  102. Yang M, Wang S, Yao T et al (2004b) Desertification and its relationship with permafrost degradation in Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) plateau. Cold Reg Sci Technol 39:47–53. doi: 10.1016/j.coldregions.2004.01.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Yang T, Zhang Q, Chen YD et al (2008) A spatial assessment of hydrologic alteration caused by dam construction in the middle and lower Yellow River, China. Hydrol Process 3843:3829–3843. doi: 10.1002/hyp CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. YRCC (2013) Yellow River water resources bulletins. http://www.yrcc.gov.cn. Accessed 14 Nov 2015
  105. Yu L (2002) The Huanghe (Yellow) River: a review of its development, characteristics, and future management issues. Cont Shelf Res 22:389–403. doi: 10.1016/S0278-4343(01)00088-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Yu L (2006) The Huanghe (Yellow) River: recent changes and its countermeasures. Cont Shelf Res 26:2281–2298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Yue TX, Liu JY, Jørgensen SE, Ye QH (2003) Landscape change detection of the newly created wetland in Yellow River Delta. Ecol Model 164:21–31. doi: 10.1016/S0304-3800(02)00391-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Zhai J, Liu R, Liu J et al (2015) Human-induced landcover changes drive a diminution of land surface albedo in the Loess Plateau (China). Remote Sens 7:2926–2941CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Zhang K, Wen Z (2008) Review and challenges of policies of environmental protection and sustainable development in China. J Environ Manag 88:1249–1261. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2007.06.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Zhang J, Huang WW, Shi MC (1990) Huanghe (Yellow River) and its estuary: sediment origin, transport and deposition. J Hydrol 120:203–223. doi: 10.1016/0022-1694(90)90150-V CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Zhang Q, Xu C, Becker S, Jiang T (2006) Sediment and runoff changes in the Yangtze River basin during past 50 years. J Hydrol 331:511–523. doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2006.05.036 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Zhang X, Wang M, Liang X (2009) Quantitative classification and carbon density of the forest vegetation in Lüliang Mountains of China BT. In: Valk AG (ed) Forest ecology: recent advances in plant ecology. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 1–9Google Scholar
  113. Zhao D, Kuenzer C, Fu C, Wagner W (2008) Evaluation of the ERS scatterometer-derived soil water index to monitor water availability and precipitation distribution at three different scales in China. J Hydrometeorol 9:549–562. doi: 10.1175/2007JHM965.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Zhao T, Xu H, He Y et al (2009) Agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution control function of different vegetation types in riparian wetlands: a case study in the Yellow River wetland in China. J Environ Sci 21:933–939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Zhao T, Richards KS, Xu H, Meng H (2012) Interactions between dam-regulated river flow and riparian groundwater: a case study from the Yellow River, China. Hydrol Process 26:1552–1560. doi: 10.1002/hyp.8260 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Zhen L, Zhang H (2011) Payment for ecosystem services in China: an overviewGoogle Scholar
  117. Zhou H, Van Rompaey A, Wang J (2009) Detecting the impact of the “Grain for Green” program on the mean annual vegetation cover in the Shaanxi province, China using SPOT-VGT NDVI data. Land Use Policy 26:954–960. doi: 10.1016/j.landusepol.2008.11.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Zhu Z, Cai X, Giordano M, et al (2003) Yellow River comprehensive assessment: basin features and issues. ColomboGoogle Scholar
  119. Zhu Z, Giordano M, Cai X, Molden D (2004) The Yellow River Basin: water accounting, water accounts, and current issues. Water Int 29:2–10. doi: 10.1080/02508060408691742 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christian Wohlfart
    • 1
    Email author
  • Claudia Kuenzer
    • 2
  • Cui Chen
    • 3
    • 4
  • Gaohuan Liu
    • 5
  1. 1.Company for Remote Sensing and Environmental Research (SLU)MunichGermany
  2. 2.German Remote Sensing Data Center (DFD)German Aerospace Center (DLR)WesslingGermany
  3. 3.Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ)LeipzigGermany
  4. 4.Sino-German Research Centre for Environmental Information Science (RCEIS)LeipzigGermany
  5. 5.State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information SystemInstitute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research (IGSNRR), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)BeijingChina

Personalised recommendations