Proposals for risk assessment of major cations in surface water and deep sediment: iso-cation curves, probabilities of occurrence and non-occurrence of cations


Spatial analysis and stochastic risk analysis methodologies are proposed for the characterisation of major cations (Mg, Ca, K, Na and Zn) in deep sediments and surface waters of the Keban Reservoir, Turkey. Curves denoted as “iso-cation curves” were drawn using the spatial analysis of the major cations. Spatial diagrams and risk assessment allowed significant conclusions about the nature of the variations in cation concentration in the reservoir. Major cations are measured at 20 different locations within the reservoir, and their comparisons are presented through both spatial distribution and risk analysis models for each ion. Their collective behaviour was also analysed by comparing spatial diagrams of surface water and deep sediment concentrations. Finally, the iso-cation curves and achievement of the occurrence and/or non-occurrence cation probabilities in any research area can be generalised to other the environment sciences. This calculation can be extended easily to cover all pollutants at micro- and macroscales.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9


  1. Clesceri LS, Greenberg AE, Trussell RR (1989) Standart methods for the examination of water and wastewater. American Public Health Association, Washington, USA, Part 7000-7500

  2. Evans M, Hastings N, Peacock B (2000) Statistical distributions, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York

    Google Scholar 

  3. Feller W (1967) An introduction to probability theory and its application, vol 1. Wiley, New York, p 509

    Google Scholar 

  4. Golden Software (2009) Grapher version 8.0.278. Golden, Colorado

    Google Scholar 

  5. Keban Dam Lake Limnological Study Report (1982) Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources, Operations and Maintenance Department, Ankara

  6. Kim H-S, Chung C-K, Kim H-K (2016) Geo-spatial data integration for subsurface stratification of dam site with outlier analyses. Environ Earth Sci 75:168

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Krige DG (1951) A statistical approach to some basic mine valuation problems on the Witwatersrand. J Chem Metall Min Soc S Afr 52:119–139

    Google Scholar 

  8. Külahcı F (2011) A risk analysis model for radioactive wastes. J Hazard Mater 191:349–355

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Külahcı F, Şen Z (2009) Spatio-temporal modeling of 210Pb transportation in lake environments. J Hazard Mater 65:525–532

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Matheron G (1963) Principles of geostatistics. Econ Geol 58:1246–1266

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Merian E, Anke M, Ihnat M, Stoeppler M (2004a) Elements and their compounds in the environment, vol 1. Wiley, Weinheim

    Google Scholar 

  12. Merian E, Anke M, Ihnat M, Stoeppler M (2004b) Elements and their compounds in the environment, vol 2. Wiley, Weinheim

    Google Scholar 

  13. Mor S, Ravindra K, Dahiya RP et al (2006) Leachate characterization and assessment of groundwater pollution near municipal solid waste landfill site. Environ Monit Assess 118:435–456

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. MTA (2011)

  15. Özmen H, Külahcı F, Çukurovalı A, Doğru M (2004) Concentrations of heavy metal and radioactivity in surface water and sediment of Hazar Lake (Elazığ, Turkey). Chemosphere 55:401–408

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. SAS (2007) UCLA: Academic Technology Services, Statistical Consulting Group.

  17. Şen Z (1976) Wet and dry periods of annual flow series. ASCE J Hydraul Div 102:1503–1514

    Google Scholar 

  18. Şen Z (1991) Probabilistic modelling of crossing in small samples and application of runs to hydrology. J Hydrol 124:345–362

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Şen Z (1999) Simple risk calculations in dependent hydrological series. J Hydrol Sci 44:871–878

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Swaine DJ (2000) Why trace elements are important. Fuel Process Technol 65:21–33

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Viets FG (1962) Chemistry and availability of micronutrients in soil. J Agric Food Chem 10:174–178

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Xue Y, Meng X, Wasowsk J et al (2015) Spatial analysis of surface deformation distribution detected by persistent scatterer interferometry in Lanzhou Region, China. Environ Earth Sci 75:80

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. You M, Huang Y, Lu J, Li C (2016) Fractionation characterizations and environmental implications of heavy metal in soil from coal mine in Huainan, China. Environ Earth Sci 75:78

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


This study is part of a research project supported by The Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK) and The Council of Higher Education (YÖK), Turkey. The author would like to thank TÜBİTAK and YÖK for financial support and encouragement.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Fatih Külahcı.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Külahcı, F. Proposals for risk assessment of major cations in surface water and deep sediment: iso-cation curves, probabilities of occurrence and non-occurrence of cations. Environ Earth Sci 75, 980 (2016).

Download citation


  • Risk assessment
  • Risk analysis
  • Cation
  • Spatial analysis
  • Lake