Biochemical and stable carbon isotope records of mangrove derived organic matter in the sediment cores

  • M. N. Manju
  • P. Resmi
  • C. S. Ratheesh Kumar
  • T. R. Gireeshkumar
  • N. Chandramohanakumar
  • Manju Mary Joseph
Original Article

Abstract

Core sediments from five mangrove ecosystems along northern Kerala Coast were collected to evaluate the nature and sources of organic matter in these ecosystems. General sedimentary parameters (pH, Eh, grain size and total organic carbon) and biochemical constituents (carbohydrate, lipid and protein) were analysed. The protein-to-carbohydrate ratio and lipid-to-carbohydrate ratio were calculated to assess the quality of organic matter in core sediments. Higher concentrations of biochemical components were recorded in surface sediments, with a dominance of carbohydrates followed by lipids and proteins. Protein/carbohydrate ratio was found to be <1 in the entire study region indicating a large content of aged and/or non-living organic matter in mangrove sediments. This also confirms the involvement of heterotrophic microorganisms in the organic carbon dynamics of the study area. The bulk elemental ratio (total organic carbon/total nitrogen) varied between 11.39 and 24.14 in the study region, recording minimum value at Kunjimangalam and maximum at Pappinissery. Samples from Kadalundi recorded low total organic carbon/total nitrogen ratio throughout the core, indicated a marine signature. Stable carbon isotopic ratio (−29.19 to −23.87 ‰) in the sediments suggested the dominance of terrestrially derived organic matter. Principal component analysis revealed that mangrove litter addition, diagenesis and accumulation of organic matter on fine grained sediments are the major processes controlling the distribution of the parameters in the study area.

Keywords

Core sediment Mangrove Biochemical components Stable carbon isotopic ratio Principal component analysis 

References

  1. Ahmad MK, Islam S, Rahman S, Haque MR, Islam MM (2010) Heavy metals in water, sediment and some fishes of Buriganga River, Bangladesh. Int J Environ Res 4:321–332Google Scholar
  2. Akhil PS, Manju PN, Sujatha CH (2013) Core sediment biogeochemistry in specific zones of Cochin Estuarine System (CES). J Earth Syst Sci 122:1557–1570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ali MM, Mudge SM (2005) Lipid geochemistry in a sediment core from Conwy Estuary, North Wales. Sains Malays 34:23–33Google Scholar
  4. Al-Juboury AI (2009) Natural pollution by some heavy metals in the Tigris River, northern Iraq. Int J Environ Res 3:189–198Google Scholar
  5. APHA (1995) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 19th edn. ISBN 0-87553-223-3Google Scholar
  6. Babu MT, Kesavadas V, Vethamony P (2006) BOD-DO modeling and water quality analysis of waste water out fall off Kochi, west coast of India. Environ Int 32:165–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baker EW, Louda JW (2002) The legacy of the treibs’ samples. In: Prashnowsky A (ed) Alfred treibs memorial volume. University of Wurzburg Press, Wurzburg, pp 3–128Google Scholar
  8. Balachandran KK, Thresiamma J, Maheswari N, Sankaranarayanan N, Kesavadas V, Sheeba P (2003) Geochemistry of surficial sediments along the central southwest coast of India. J Coastal Res 19:664–683Google Scholar
  9. Barnes H, Blackstock J (1973) Estimation of lipids in marine animals and tissues: detailed investigation of the sulphosphovanillin method for ‘total’ lipids. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 12:103–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barranguet CMR, Plante-Cuny Alivon E (1996) Microphytobenthos production in the Gulf of Fos, French Mediterranean coast. Hydrobiologia 333:181–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Benner R, Weliky K, Hedges JI (1990) Early diagenesis of mangrove leaves in a tropical estuary: molecular-level analyses of neutral sugars and lignin derived phenols. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 54:1991–2001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Benny N (2009) Unravelling a benchmark for sulphur akin in the Cochin Estuarine System. Ph.D Thesis, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin, KeralaGoogle Scholar
  13. Bianchi TS, Engelhaupt E, McKee BA (2002) Do sediments from coastal sites accurately reflect time trends in water column phytoplankton? A test from Himmerfjarden Bay (Baltic Sea proper). Limnol Oceanogr 47:1537–1544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bird MI, Haberle Chivas AR (1994) The effect of altitude on the carbon-isotope composition of forest and grassland soils from Papua New Guinea. Global Biogeochem CY 8:13–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bligh EG, Dyer WJ (1959) A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Can J Biochem Phys 37:911–917CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Boreham CJ, Hope JM, Hartung-Kagi B (2001) Understanding source, distribution and preservation of Australian natural gas: a geochemical perspective. APPEA 41:523–547Google Scholar
  17. Borsheim KY, Myklestael SM, Sneil JA (1999) Monthly profiles of DOC, mono and polysaccharides at two locations in the Trondheims fjord (Norway) during 2 years. Mar Chem 63:255–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bouillon S, Moens T, Dehairs F (2004) Carbon sources supporting benthic mineralization in mangrove and adjacent seagrass sediments (Gazi Bay, Kenya). Biogeosciences 1:71–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brugnoli E, Farquhar GD (2000) Photosynthetic fractionation of carbon isotopes. In: Leegood RC, Sharkey TD, von Caemmerer S (eds) Photosynthesis: physiology and metabolism. Advances in photosynthesis. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands, pp 399–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Buckley DE, Smith JN, Winters GV (1995) Accumulation of contaminant metals in marine sediments of Halifax Harbour, Nova Scotia: environmental factors and historical trends. Appl Geochem 10:175–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Burdige DJ (2006) Geochemistry of marine sediment. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  22. Burdige DJ, Skoog A, Gardener KG (2000) Dissolved and particulate carbohydrate in contrasting marine sediment. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 64:1029–1041CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cartes JE, Grémare A, Maynou F, Villora-Moreno S, Dinet A (2002) Bathymetric changes in the distributions of particulate organic matter and associated fauna along a deep-sea transect down the Catalan sea slope (Northwestern Mediterranean). Prog Oceanogr 53:29–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chibunda RT, Pereka AE, Phiri ECJ, Tungaraza C (2010) Ecotoxicity of mercury contaminated sediment collected from Mabubi River (Geita district, Tanzania) to the early life stages of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Int J Environ Res 4:49–56Google Scholar
  25. Chung HM, Rooney MA, Toon MB, Claypool GE (1992) Carbon isotope composition of marine crude oils. Am Assoc Pet Geol Bull 76:1000–1007Google Scholar
  26. Cifuentes LA, Coffin RB, Soloranzo L, Cardenas W, Espinoza J, Twilley RR (1996) Isotopic and elemental variations of carbon and nitrogen in a mangrove estuary. Est Coast Shelf Sci 43:781–800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cividanes S, Incera M, Lopez J (2002) Temporal variability in the biochemical composition of sedimentary organic matter in an intertidal flat of the Galician coast (NW Spain). Oceanol Acta 25:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. CMFRI (Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute) (2002) Technical extension series. Marine Fisheries Information Service Technical and Extension Series, No. 172Google Scholar
  29. Coljin F, Dijkema KS (1981) Species composition of benthic diatoms and distribution of chlorophyll a on an intertidal flat in the Dutch Wadden Sea. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 4:9–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Collister JW, Wavrek DA (1996) 13C compositions of saturate and aromatic fractions of lacustrine oils and bitumens: evidence for water column stratification. Org Geochem 24:913–920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Colombo JC, Silverberg N, Gearing JN (1996) Biogeochemistry of organic matter in the Laurentian trough, II. Bulk composition of the sediments and relative reactivity of major components during early diagenesis. Mar Chem 51:295–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cowie GL, Hedges JI (1992) Sources and reactivities of amino acids in a coastal marine environment. Limnological reactivities of organic matter in a coastal marine bay. Limnol Oceanogr 37:703–724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Danovaro R (1996) Detritus–bacteria–meofauna interactions in a seagrass bed (Posidonia Oceanica) of the NW Mediterraneon. Mar Biol 127:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Danovaro R, Fabiano M, Della Croce N (1993) Labile organic matter and microbial biomasses in deep-sea sediments (Eastern Mediterranean Sea). Deep Sea Res 40:953–965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Danovaro R, Fabiano M, Boyer M (1994) Seasonal changes of benthic bacteria in a seagrass bed (Posidonia oceanica) of the Ligurian Sea in relation to origin, composition and fate of the sediment organic matter. Mar Biol 119:489–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Danovaro R, Marrale D, Della Croce N, Parodi P, Fabiano M (1999) Biochemical composition of sedimentary organic matter and bacterial distribution in the Aegean Sea: trophic state and pelagic–benthic coupling. J Sea Res 42:117–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Danovaro R, Marrale D, Dell’Anno A, Della Croce N, Tselepides A, Fabiano M (2000) Bacterial response to sea seasonal changes in labile organic matter composition on the continental shelf and bathyal sediments of the Cretan Sea. Prog Oceanogr 46:345–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. De Jonge VN (1980) Fluctations in the organic carbon to chlorophyll-a ratios for estuarine benthic diatom populations. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 2:345–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dell’Anno A, Mei ML, Pusceddu A, Danovaro R (2002) Assessing the trophic state and eutrophication of coastal marine systems: a new approach based on the biochemical composition of sediment organic matter. Mar Poll Bull 44:611–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dittmar T, Hertkorn N, Kattner G, Lara RJ (2006) Mangroves, a major source of dissolved matter sources to the oceans. Global Biogeochem Cy 20:1012. doi:10.1029/2005GB002570 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dodds WK, Cole JJ (2007) Expanding the concept of trophic state in aquatic ecosystems: it’s not just the autotrophs. Aquat Sci 69:427–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Dubois M, Gilles KA, Hamilton JK, Rebers PA, Smith F (1956) Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Anal Chem 28:350–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Fabiano M, Danovaro R (1994) Composition of organic matter in sediments facing a river estuary (Tyrrhenian Sea): relationships with bacteria and microphytobenthic biomass. Hydrobiologia 277:71–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Fabiano M, Pusceddu A (1998) Total hydrolizable particulate organic matter (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids) at a coastal station in Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea, Antarctica). Polar Biol 19:125–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Fabiano M, Danovaro R, Fraschetti S (1995) Temporal trend analysis of the elemental composition of the sediment organic matter in subtidal sandy sediments of the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean): a 3 years study. Cont Shelf Res 15:1453–1469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Fernandes L, Garg A, Borole DV (2014) Amino acid biogeochemistry and bacterial contribution to sediment organic matter along the western margin of the Bay of Bengal. Deep Sea Res Pt I 83:81–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Fichez R (1991) Composition and fate of organic matter in submarine cave sediments; implications for the biogeochemical cycle of organic carbon. Oceanol Acta 14:369–377Google Scholar
  48. Field JA, Lettinga G (1987) The methanogenic toxicity and anaerobic degradability of a hydrolysable tannin. Water Res 21:367–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Filley TR, Freeman KH, Bianchi TS, Baskaran M, Colarusso LA, Hatcher PG (2001) An isotopic biogeochemical assessment of shifts in organic matter input to Holocene sediments from Mud Lake Florida. Org Geochem 32:1153–1167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Finar IL (1976) Organic chemistry, vol 1. Longman, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  51. Fiordelmondo C, Pusceddu A (2004) Short-term response of benthic bacteria and nanoflagellates to sediment resuspension: an experimental study. Chem Ecol 20:107–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Geetha R, Chandramohanakumar N, Mathews L (2008) Geochemical reactivity of surficial and core sediment of a tropical mangrove ecosystem. Int J Environ Res 2:329–342Google Scholar
  53. Grémare A, Amouroux JM, Charles F, Dinet A, Riaux-Gobin C, Baudart J, Medernach L, Bodiou JY, Vétion G, Colomines JC (1997) Temporal changes in the biochemical composition and nutritional value of the particulate organic matter available to surface deposit-feeders: a 2 year study. Mar Ecol-Prog Ser 150:195–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Grémare A, Mederach L, Debovee F, Amoroux JM, Vetion G, Albert P (2002) Relationships between sedimentary organics and benthic meiofauna on the continental shelf and the upper slope of the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean). Mar Ecol Prog Ser 234:85–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Guilizzoni P, Marchetto A, Lami A, Cameron G, Appleby P, Schnell NL, Schnell OA, Belis CA, Giorgis A, Guzzi L (1996) The environmental history of a mountain lake (Lago Paione Superiore, Central Alps, Italy) for the last c. 100 years: a multidisciplinary, paleolimnological study. J Paleo Limnol 15:245–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hernes PJ, Hedges JI (2000) Determination of condensed tannin monomers in environmental samples by capillary gas chromatography of acid depolymerization extracts. Anal Chem 72:5115–5124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Incera M, Cividanes SP, Lopez J, Costas RC (2003) Role of hydrodynamic conditions on quantity and biochemical composition of sediment organic matter in sandy intertidal sediments (NW Atlantic coast, Iberian Peninsula). Hydrobiologia 497:39–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Jasper JP, Gagosian RB (1990) The sources and deposition of organic matter in the Late Quaternary Pigmy Basin, Gulf of Mexico. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 54:1117–1132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Jennerjahn TC, Ittekkot V (2002) Relevance of mangroves for the production and deposition of organic matter along tropical continental margins. Naturwissenschaften 89:23–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Jia GD, Peng PA (2003) Temporal and spatial variations in signatures of sediment organic matter in Ling Bay (Pearl estuary), Southern China. Mar Chem 82:47–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Jørgensen BB (2000) Bacteria and marine biogeochemistry. In: Schulz HD, Zabel M (eds) Marine geochemistry. Springer, Berlin, pp 173–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Joseph MM, Ratheesh Kumar CS, Gireesh Kumar TR, Renjith KR, Chandramohanakumar N (2008) Biogeochemistry of surficial sediments in the intertidal systems of a tropical environment. Chem Ecol 24(4):247–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Joseph MM, Renjith KR, Ratheesh Kumar CS, Chandramohanakumar N (2012) Assessment of organic matter sources in the tropical mangrove ecosystems of Cochin, Southwest India. Environ Forensics 13:262–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kaiser HF (1960) The application of electronic computers to factor analysis. Educ Psychol Meas 20:141–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Karbassi AR, Shankar R (2005) Geochemistry of two sediment cores from the west coast of India. Int J Environ SciTech 1(4):307–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kathiresan K, Bingham BL (2001) Biology of mangroves and mangrove ecosystems. Adv Mar Bio 40:81–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kowalewska G, Wawrzyniak-Wydrowska B, Szymczak-Żyła M (2004) Chlorophyll a and its derivatives in sediments of the Odra estuary as a measure of its eutrophication. Mar Poll Bull 49:148–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kraus TEC, Yu Z, Preston CM, Dahlgren RA, Zasoski RJ (2003) Linking chemical reactivity and protein precipitation to structural characteristics of foliar tannins. J Chem Ecol 29:703–730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kristensen E, Holmer M, Bussarawit (1991) Benthic metabolism and sulphate reduction in a Southeast Asian mangrove swamp. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 73:93–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kristensen E, Devol AH, Ahemad SI, Saleem M (1992) Preliminary study on benthic metabolism and sulphate reduction in a mangrove swamp of Indus delta, Pakistan. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 90:287–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Krumbein WC, PettiJohn FJ (1938) Manual of sedimentary petrography. Appleton Century Crofts, NewYork, p 349Google Scholar
  72. Lehmann MF, Bernasconi SM, Barbieri A, Mckenzie JA (2002) Preservation of organic matter and alteration of its carbon and nitrogen isotope composition during simulated and in situ early sedimentary diagenesis. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 66:3573–3584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Liao JF (1990) The chemical properties of the mangrove Solonchak in the northeast part of Hainan Island. Acta Sci Nat Univ Sunyatseni 9(4):67–72Google Scholar
  74. Lin YM, Liu JW, Xiang P, Lin P, Ye GF, Sternberg LSL (2006) Tannin dynamics of propagules and leaves of Kandelia candel and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza in the Jiulong River Estuary, Fujian, China. Biogeochemistry 78:343–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Liu SM, Kou CE, Hsu TB (1996) Reductive dechlorination of cholorphenols and pentachlorophenol in anoxic estuarine sediment. Chemosphere 32:1287–1300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Liu CW, Lin KH, Kuo YM (2003) Application of factor analysis in the assessment of ground water quality in a blackfoot disease area in Taiwan. Sci Total Environ 313:77–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Liu M, Hou L, Xu S, Ou D, Yang Y, Yu J, Wang Q (2006) Organic carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in the intertidal sediments from the Yangtze Estuary, China. Mar Poll Bull 52:1625–1633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Louda JW, Loitz JW, Rudnick DT, Baker EW (2000) Early diagenetic alteration of chlorophyll-a and bacteriochlorophyll-a in a contemporaneous marine ecosystem; Florida Bay. Org Geochem 31:1561–1580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Fart AL, Randall RJ (1951) Protein measurement with Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193:265–275Google Scholar
  80. Lucas CH, Widdows J, Brinsley MD, Salkeld PN, Herman PMJ (2000) Benthic-pelagic exchange of microalgae at a tidal flat. 1. Pigment analysis, Mar Ecol Prog Ser 196:59–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Manju MN, Resmi P, Gireesh Kumar TR, Ratheesh Kumar CS, Rahul R, Joseph MM, Chandramohanakumar N (2012) Assessment of water quality parameters in mangrove ecosystems along Kerala coast: a statistical approach. Int J Environ Res 6:893–902Google Scholar
  82. Martin GD, Muraleedharan KR, Vijay JG, Rejomon G, Madhu NV, Shivaprasad A et al (2010) Formation of anoxia and denitrification in the bottom waters of a tropical estuary, southwest coast of India. Biogeosci Discuss 7:1751–1782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Martin GD, Nisha PA, Balachandran KK, Madhu NV, Nair M, Shaiju P, Joseph T, Srinivas K, Gupta GVM (2011) Eutrophication induced changes in benthic community structure of a flow-restricted tropical estuary (Cochin backwaters), India. Environ Monit Assess 176:427–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Meyers PA (1994) Preservation of elemental and isotopic source identification of sedimentary organic matter. Chem Geol 114:289–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Meyers PA, Ishiwatari R (1993) Lacustrine organic geochemistry—an overview of indicators of organic matter sources and diagenesis in lake sediments. Org Geochem 20:867–900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Middelburg JJ, Nieuwenhuize J, Lubberts RK, van de Plassche O (1997) Organic carbon isotope systematics of coastal marshes. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 45:681–687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Middelburg JJ, Nieuwenhuize J, van-Breugel P (1999) Black carbon in marine sediments. Mar Chem 65:245–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Moreno S, Niell FX (2004) Scales of variability in the sediment chlorophyll content of the shallow Palmones River Estuary, Spain. Est Coast Shelf Sci 60:49–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Muller PJ (1997) C/N ratios in Pacific deep sea sediments: effect of inorganic ammonium and organic nitrogen compound sorbed by clays. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 41:765–776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Muzuka ANN, Shunula JP (2006) Stable isotope compositions of organic carbon and nitrogen of two mangrove stands along the Tanzanian coastal zone. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 66:447–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Nair SM, Balchand AN, Nambisan PNK (1989) On the determination and distribution of hydroxylated aromatic compounds in estuarine waters. Toxicol and Envtl Chem. 23:203–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Perdue EM, Koprivnjak JF (2007) Using the C/N ratio to estimate terrigenous inputs of organic matter to aquatic environments. Est Coast Shelf Sci 73:65–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Pinturier-Geiss L, Méjanelle L, Dale B, Karlsen DA (2002) Lipids as indicators of eutrophication in marine coastal sediments. J Microbiol Meth 48:239–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Prasad MBK, Ramanathan AL (2008) Sedimentary nutrient dynamics in a tropical estuarine mangrove ecosystem. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 80:60–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Pusceddu A, Sara G, Armeni IM, Fabiano M, Mazzola A (1999) Seasonal and spatial changes in the sediment organic matter of a semi-enclosed marine system (W-Mediterranean Sea). Hydrobiologia 397:59–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Pusceddu A, Dell’Anno A, Fabiano M (2000) Organic matter composition in coastal sediments at Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea) during summer 1995. Polar Biol 23:288–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Pusceddu A, Grémare A, Escoubeyrou K, Amoroux JM, Fiordelmondo C, Danovaro R (2005) Impact of natural (storm) and anthropogenic (trawling) sediment resuspension on particulate organic matter in coastal environments. Cont Shelf Res 25:2506–2520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Pusceddu A, Dell’Anno A, Fabiano M, Danovaro R (2009) Quantity and bioavailability of sediment organic matter as signatures of benthic trophic status. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 375:41–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Pusceddu A, Bianchelli S, Gambi C, Danovaro R (2011) Assessment of benthic trophic status of marine coastal ecosystems: significance of meiofaunal rare taxa. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 93:420–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Raiswell R, Buckley F, Berner RA, Anderson TF (1987) Degree of pyritization of iron as a palaeoenvironmental indicator of bottom-water oxygenation. J Sediment Petrol 58:812–819Google Scholar
  101. Ratheesh Kumar CS (2012) Triterpenoids as biomarkers of mangrove organic matter in Cochin estuarine system. PhD thesis. Cochin University of Science and TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  102. Renjith KR, Joseph Manju Mary, Ghosh Prosenjit K, Habeeb Rahman K, Ratheesh Kumar CS, Chandramohanakumar N (2012) Biogeochemical facsimile of the organic matter quality and trophic status of a micro-tidal tropical estuary. Environ Earth Sci. doi:10.1007/s12665-012-2159-0 Google Scholar
  103. Reuss N, Conley DJ, Bianchi TS (2005) Preservation conditions and the use of sedimentary pigments as a tool for recent ecological reconstruction in four Northern European estuaries. Mar Chem 95:283–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Rich JH, Decklow HW, Kirchman DL (1996) Concentration and uptake of neutral monosaccharides along 140°W in the equatorial pacific: contribution of glucose to heterotrophic bacterial activity and DOM flux. Limnol Oceanogr 41:595–604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Salas PM, Sujatha CH, Ratheesh Kumar CS (2015) Fate and source distribution of organic constituents in a river dominated tropical estuary. J Earth Syst Sci 124:1265–1279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Schelske CL, Hodell DA (1995) Using carbon isotopes of bulk sedimentary organic matter to reconstruct the history of nutrient loading and eutrophication In Lake Erie. Limnol Oceanogr 40:918–929CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Schnitzer M, Khan SU (1972) Humic Substances in the Environment. Marcel Dekker (ED), New York, p 327Google Scholar
  108. Schultze DJ, Calder JA (1976) Organic carbon 13C/12C variations in estuarine sediments. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 40:381–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Silva FS, Bitencourt JAP, Savergnini F, Guerra LV, Baptista-Neto JA, Crapez MAC (2011) Bioavailability of organic matter in the superficial sediment of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Anuário do Instituto de Geociências-UFRJ 34:52–63Google Scholar
  110. Skoog A, Benner R (1997) Aldoses in various size fractions of marine organic matter: implications for carbon cycling. Limnol Oceanogr 42:1803–1813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Smith VH (2003) Eutrophication of freshwater and coastal marine ecosystems: a global problem. Environ Sci Poll Res 10:126–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Sofer Z (1984) Stable carbon isotope compositions of crude oils: application to source depositional environments and petroleum alteration. Am Assoc Pet Geol Bull 68:31–49Google Scholar
  113. Summons RE, Thomas J, Maxwell JR, Boreham CJ (1992) Secular and environmental constraints on the occurrence of dinosterane in sediments. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 56:2437–2444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Szymczak-Żyła M, Kowalewska G (2009) Chloropigments a in sediments of the Gulf of Gdańsk deposited during the last 4000 years as indicators of eutrophication and climate change. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 284:283–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Thomson KT (2002) Economic and social issues of biodiversity loss in Cochin backwaters. Technical report. Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin, India. pp 51–82Google Scholar
  116. Thottathil SD, Balachandran KK, Gupta GVM, Madhu NV, Nair S (2008) Influence ofallochthonous input on autotrophic-heterotrophic switch-over in shallow waters of a tropical estuary (Cochin Estuary), India. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 78:551–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Twilley RR, Lugo AE, Patterson- Zucca C (1986) Litter production and turnover in basin mangrove forests in southwest Florida. Ecology 67:670–683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Venturini N, Pita AL, Brugnoli E, García-Rodríguez F, Burone L, Kandratavicius N, Hutton M (2012) Benthic trophic status of sediments in a metropolitian area (Rio de la Plata estuary): linkages with natural and human pressures. Est Coast Shelf Sci 112:139–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Villanueva J, Hastings DW (2000) A century-scale record of the preservation of chlorophyll and its transformation products in anoxic sediments. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 64:2281–2294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Volkman JK, Revill AT, Bonham PI, Clementson LA (2007) Sources of organic matter in sediments from the Ord River in tropical northern Australia. Org Geochem 38:1039–1060CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Wafar S, Untawale AG, Wafar M (1997) Litter fall and energy flux in a mangrove ecosystem. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 44:111–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Wang XC, Chen RF, Berry A (2003) Sources and preservation of organic matter in Plum Island salt marsh sediments (MA, USA): long-chain n-alkanes and stable carbon isotope compositions. Est Coast Shelf Sci 58:917–928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Wu Y, Zhang J, Zhang ZF, Ren JL, Cao JP (2002) Seasonal variability of stable carbon and nitrogen isotope of suspended particulate matter in the Changjiang river. Oceanol Limnol Sin 33:546–552Google Scholar
  124. Zegouagh Y, Derenne S, Largeau C, Bertrand P, Sicre MA, Saliot A, Rousseau B (1999) Refractory organic matter in sediments from the Northwest African upwelling system: abundance, chemical structure and origin. Org Geochem 30:101–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Zhang L, Yin K, Wang L, Chen F, Zhang D, Yang Y (2009) The sources and accumulation rate of sedimentary organic matter in the Pearl River Estuary and adjacent coastal area, Southern China. Est Coast Shelf Sci 85:190–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. N. Manju
    • 1
  • P. Resmi
    • 1
  • C. S. Ratheesh Kumar
    • 2
  • T. R. Gireeshkumar
    • 3
  • N. Chandramohanakumar
    • 4
  • Manju Mary Joseph
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Chemical Oceanography, School of Marine SciencesCochin University of Science and TechnologyKochiIndia
  2. 2.Chemical Examiner’s Laboratory, HeadquartersThiruvananthapuramIndia
  3. 3.National Institute of Oceanography, Regional CentreKochiIndia
  4. 4.Inter University Centre for Development of Marine BiotechnologyCochin University of Science and TechnologyKochiIndia

Personalised recommendations