Environmental Earth Sciences

, Volume 71, Issue 12, pp 5121–5127 | Cite as

The impact of nitrogenous and phosphorous nutrients from selected point sources in Kisumu City on River Kisat and Nyalenda Wigwa Stream before their discharge into Winam Gulf, Lake Victoria

  • Patrick Chamula Musungu
  • Joseph O. LalahEmail author
  • Isaac O. Jondiko
  • David M. K. Ongeri
Original Article


Various industrial facilities including a fish-processing factory, a matchbox factory, a flour mill and a landfill, all in Kisumu City in Kenya, were studied and found to discharge significant amounts of NO2 –N, NO3 –N, org N, total N and total P into River Kisat and Winam Gulf of Lake Victoria, with  % increases in the mean levels at the outlets of these facilities ranging from 9.6 to 200, 5.9 to 43.5, 9.3 to 96.1, 8.1 to 35.5 and 9.7 to 50.5 %, respectively. The concentrations of NO2 –N, NO3 –N, NH3–N, org N and total N attributable to these facilities increased by 1,509, 51.1, 112.6, 97.5 and 90.6 %, respectively, at the point of entry into Rive Kisat. The Nyalenda Wastewater Stabilization Ponds reduced the mean levels of NO2 –N, NO3 –N, org N, total N and T-P by 50, 10.4, 16.6, 7.8 and 30.8 %, respectively, indicating low efficacy of their removal and potential impact on water quality in Lake Victoria. The efficacy of the Kisat wastewater treatment plant was also found to be very low with  % reductions of the analysed nutrients ranging from 2.82 to 41.30 %.


Environmental assessment N, P nutrients Kisumu City Lake Victoria 



The authors are grateful for the support received from the Teachers Service Commission (TSC) through a study leave granted to Patrick Chamula Musungu, the Kisumu Water and Sewerage Company and staff of Maseno University Laboratory. This manuscript was prepared during a return fellowship granted by Alexander von Humboldt Foundation to Joseph O. Lalah at Bayreuth University, Germany.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patrick Chamula Musungu
    • 1
  • Joseph O. Lalah
    • 2
    Email author
  • Isaac O. Jondiko
    • 1
  • David M. K. Ongeri
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryMaseno UniversityMasenoKenya
  2. 2.Department of Chemical Science and TechnologyTechnical University of KenyaNairobiKenya

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