Environmental Earth Sciences

, Volume 71, Issue 7, pp 3171–3180 | Cite as

Chemical evolution of a gas-capped deep aquifer, southwest of Iran

  • Rahim Bagheri
  • Arash Nadri
  • Ezzat Raeisi
  • Ali Shariati
  • Mahmud Mirbagheri
  • Farahtaj Bahadori
Original Article

Abstract

The Kangan Aquifer (KA) is located below a gas reservoir in the crest of the Kangan Anticline, southwest of Iran. This aquifer is composed of Permo-Triassic limestone, dolomite, sandstone, anhydrite and shale. It is characterized by a total dissolved solid of about 332,000 mg/L and Na–Ca–Cl-type water. A previous study showed that the source of the KA waters is evaporated seawater. Chemical evolution of the KA is the main objective of this study. The major, minor and trace element concentrations of the KA waters were measured. The chemical evolution of KA waters occurred by three different processes: evaporation of seawater, water–rock and water–gas interactions. Due to the seawater evaporation process, the concentration of all ions in the KA waters increased up to saturation levels. In comparison to the evaporated seawater, the higher concentrations of Ca, Li, Sr, I, Mn and B and lower concentrations of Mg, SO4 and Na and no changes in concentrations of Cl and K ions are observed in the KA waters. Based on the chemical evolution after seawater evaporation, the KA waters are classified into four groups: (1) no evolution (Cl, K ions), (2) water–rock interaction (Na, Ca, Mg, Li and Sr ions), (3) water–gas interaction (SO4 and I ions) and (4) both water–rock and water–gas interactions (Mn and B ions). The chemical evolution processes of the KA waters include dolomitization, precipitation, ion exchange and recrystallization in water–rock interaction. Bacterial reduction and diagenesis of organic material in water–gas interaction also occur. A new type of chart, Caexcess versus Mgdeficit, is proposed to evaluate the dolomitization process.

Keywords

Gas-capped aquifer Kangan gas reservoir Evaporated seawater Chemical evolution Water–rock interaction 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We extend our appreciation to the South Zagros Oil and Gas Company of Iran for their financial support of this study. The authors thank A. Montaseri, K. Bolanparvaz-Jahromi, H.R. Nasriani, Sh. Karimi and A.A. Nikandish, all from the above company, for their cooperation during data acquisition, field work, and extensive discussions of the characteristics of the Kangan Gas Reservoir. The authors also thank the Research Council of Shiraz University for continuous support during this investigation. Furthermore, the trace elements and halogen analyses were carried out at ACTLAB Laboratories (Canada), Geochemistry Laboratory (Utrecht University, the Netherlands) and Freiberg University (Germany)—for this, we extend our gratitude. The authors also thank Dr. Tiziano Boschetti, Dr. Hans Eggenkamp and an anonymous reviewer for their detailed reviews and constructive comments on the manuscript and Dr. Gunter Doerhoefer for the editorial handling.

References

  1. Aali J, Rahimpour-Bonab H, Kamali MR (2006) Geochemistry and origin of the world’s largest gas field from Persian Gulf, Iran. J Petrol Sci Eng 50:161–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alavi M (2004) Regional Stratigraphy of the Zagros fold-thrust Belt of Iran and its Proforeland evolution. Am J Sci 304:1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bagheri R (2013) Hydrochemistry and Sources of Connate Water in the Zagros Aquifers. PhD dissertation, Shiraz University, Shiraz, IranGoogle Scholar
  4. Beyer C, Li DD, De Lucia M, Kuhn M, Bauer S (2012) Modelling CO2-induced fluid-rock interactions in the Altensalzwedel gas reservoir. Part II: coupled reactive transport simulation. Environ Earth Sci 67:573–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Birkle P, García BM, Padrón CMM (2009) Origin and evolution of formation water at the Jujo–Tecominoacán oil reservoir, Gulf of Mexico. Part 1: chemical evolution and water–rock interaction. Appl Geochem 24:543–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bordenave ML (2008) The origin of Permo-Triassic gas accumulations in the Iranian Zahros Fold Belt and contiguous offshore areas: a review of the Paleozoic petroleum system. J Pet Geol 31:3–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boschetti T, Toscani L, Shouakar-Stash O, Iacumin P, Venturelli G, Mucchino C, Frape SK (2011) Salt Waters of the Northern Apennine foredeep basin (Italy): origin and evolution. Aquat Geochem 17:71–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bottomley DJ, Katz A, Chan LH, Starinsky A, Douglas M, Clark ID, Raven KG (1999) The origin and evolution of Canadian Shield brines: evaporation or freezing of seawater? New lithium isotope and geochemical evidence from the Slave craton. Chem Geol 155:295–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Carpenter AB (1978) Origin and chemical evolution of brines in sedimentary basins. Okl Geol Surv Circular 79:60–77Google Scholar
  10. Carstea DD, Harward ME, Knox EG (1970) Comparison of iron and aluminium hydroxy interlayers in montmorillonite and vermiculite: I. Formation. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 34:517–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chan LH, Starinsky A, Katz A (2002) The behavior of lithium and its isotopes in oilfield brines: evidence from the Heletz-Kokhav Field, Israel. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 66:615–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Choi BY, Yun ST, Kim KH, Kim K, Choh SJ (2013) Geologically controlled agricultural contamination and water–rock interaction in an alluvial aquifer: results from a hydrochemical study. Environ Earth Sci 68:203–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Collins AG (1975) Geochemistry of oil-field waters. Elsevier, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. Cuoco E, Verrengia G, De Francesco S, Tedesco D (2010) Hydrogeochemistry of Roccamonfina volcano (Southern Italy). Environ Earth Sci 61:525–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Davisson ML, Criss RE (1996) Na–Ca–Cl relations in basinal fluids. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 60:2743–2752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Falcon NL (1967) Southern Iran, Zagros Mountains. In SPENCER AM (ed) Mesozoic-Cenozoic orogenic belts, vol 4: Spec Publ, Geol Soc London, London, pp 199–21Google Scholar
  17. Farid I, Trabelsi R, Zouari K, Abid K, Ayachi M (2013) Hydrogeochemical processes affecting groundwater in an irrigated land in Central Tunisia. Environ Earth Sci 68:1215–1231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fontes JCh, Matray JM (1993) Geochemistry and origin of formation brines from the Paris Basin, France, 1. Brines associated with Triassic salts. Chem Geol 109:149–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ford DC, Williams PW (2007) Karst hydrology and geomorphology, 2nd edn. Wiley, Chichester, p 576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Garven G (1995) Continental-scale fluid flow and geologic processes. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 24:89–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gultekin F, Hatipoglu E, Ersoy AF (2011) Hydrogeochemistry, environmental isotopes and the origin of the Hamamayagi-Ladik thermal spring (Samsun, Turkey). Environ Earth Sci 62:1351–1360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hanor JS (2004) The role of salt dissolution in the geologic, hydrologic, and diagenetic evolution of the northern Gulf Coast sedimentary basin. In: Post PJ (ed) Salt-sediment interactions and hydrocarbon prospectivity: concepts and case studies for the 21st century. 24th Annual Gulf Coast section SEPM foundation research conference, pp 464–501Google Scholar
  23. Hitchon B (1996) Rapid evaluation of the hydrochemistry of a sedimentary basin using only ‘standard’ formation water analysis: example from the Canadian portion of the Williston Basin. Appl Geochem 11:789–795CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hitchon B, Billings GK, Klovan JE (1971) Geochemistry and origin of formation waters in the western Canada sedimentary basin. III: Factors controlling chemical composition. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 35:567–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Holser WT (1979) Trace elements and isotopes in evaporites. In: Burns RG (ed) Reviews in mineralogy, marine minerals. Mineral Society of America, Washington DC, pp 295–346Google Scholar
  26. James GA, Wyned JG (1965) Stratigraphic nomenclature of Iranian oil consortium agreement area. Am Assoc Petroleum Geol Bull 49:2188–2245Google Scholar
  27. Kharaka YK, Hanor JS (2004) Deep fluids in the continents: I. Sedimentary basins. In: Drever JI (ed) Treatise in Geochemistry, vol 5 Holland HD, Turekian KK (Exec. Eds.), Elsevier, New York, pp 499–540Google Scholar
  28. Kharaka YK, Thordsen JJ (1992) Stable isotope geochemistry and origin of water in sedimentary basins. In: Clauer N, Chaudhuri S (eds) Isotope signatures and sedimentary records. Springer, Berlin, pp 411–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Land LS, Milliken KL (1981) Feldspar diagenesis in the Frio Formation, Brazoria County, Texas gulf coast. Geology 9:314–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Luders V, Plessen B, Romer RL, Weise SM, Banks DA, Hoth P, Dulski P, Schettler G (2010) Chemistry and isotopic composition of Rotliegend and Upper Carboniferousformation waters from the North German Basin. Chem Geol 276:198–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. MacCaffrey MA, Lazar B, Holland HD (1987) The evaporation path of seawater and the coprecipitation of Br and K+ with halite. J Sed Petrol 57:928–937Google Scholar
  32. Marion GM, Millero FJ, Feistel R (2009) Precipitation of solid phase calcium carbonates and their effect on application of seawater SA-T-P models. Ocean Sci 5:285–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. McIntosh JC, Walter LM, Martini AM (2004) Extensive microbial modification of formation water geochemistry: case study from a Midcontinent sedimentary basin, United States. Geol Soc Am Bull 116:743–759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Miliaresis GC (2001) Geomorphometric mapping of Zagros Ranges at regional scale. Comput Geosci 27:775–786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Moldovanyi EP, Walter LM (1992) Regional trends in water chemistry, Smackover Formation, Southwest Arkansas: geochemical and physical controls. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Bull 76:864–894Google Scholar
  36. Nadri A, Bagheri R, Raeisi E, Ayatollahi SSH, Bolanparvaz-Jahromi K (2013) Hydrodynamic behavior of a gas-capped deep confined aquifer in Iran. Environ Earth Sci. doi: 10.1007/s12665-013-2596-4
  37. National Iranian Oil Company (2009a) Reservoir engineering report of Kangan gasfield. In Persian, unpublishedGoogle Scholar
  38. National Iranian Oil Company (2009b) Sedimentology report of Kangan gasfield. In Persian, unpublishedGoogle Scholar
  39. Özler HK (2010) Carbonate weathering and connate seawater influencing karst groundwaters in the Gevas–Gurpinar–Güzelsu basins, Turkey. Environ Earth Sci 61:323–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Parkhurst DL, Appelo CAJ (2013) Description of input and examples for PHREEQC Version 3—A computer program for speciation, batch-reaction, one-dimensional transport, and inverse geochemical calculations, US Geological Survey Techniques and Methods, book 6, Chap. A43. http://pubs.usgs.gov/tm/06/a43/, p 497
  41. Pasvanoglu S (2012) Hydrogeochemical study of the thermal and mineralized waters of the Banaz (Hamambogazi) area, western Anatolia, Turkey. Environ Earth Sci 65:741–752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Phalen WC (1912) Celestite deposits in California and Arizona. Contributions to Economic Geology Part 1Google Scholar
  43. Pytkowicz RM (1973) Calcium carbonate retention in supersaturated seawater. Am J Sci 273:515–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Raeisi E (2008) Ground-water storage calculation in karstic aquifers with alluvium or no-flow boundaries. J Cave Karst Stud 70:62–70Google Scholar
  45. Rittenhouse G (1967) Bromine in oil-field waters and its use in determining possibilities of origin of these waters. AAPG Bull 51:2430–2440Google Scholar
  46. Rosenthal E (1997) Thermomineral water of Ca-chloride composition: review of diagnostics and of brine evolution. Environ Geol 32:245–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Rubey WW (1951) Geological history of sea water. Geol Soc Am Bull 62:1111–1148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sanders LL (1991) Geochemistry of formation waters from the lower Silurian Clinton Formation (Albion Sandstone), Eastern Ohio. AAPG Bulletin 75:1593–1608Google Scholar
  49. Starinsky A (1974) Relationship between Ca-chloride brines and sedimentary rocks in Israel (PhD thesis). Hebrew University, JerusalemGoogle Scholar
  50. Stocklin J (1968) Structural history and tectonics of Iran, A review. AAPG Bull 52:1229–1258Google Scholar
  51. Stocklin J, Setudehnia A (1977) Stratigraphic Lexicon of Iran. Geological Survey of Iran, TehranGoogle Scholar
  52. Talbot CJ (1979) Fold trains in a glacier of salt in southern Iran. J Struct Geol 1:5–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Tanvir Rahman MATM, Majumder RK, Rahman SH, Halim MA (2011) Sources of deep groundwater salinity in the southwestern zone of Bangladesh. Environ Earth Sci 63:363–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. White DE (1965) Saline waters of sedimentary rocks. In: Young A, Galley GE (eds) Fluids in subsurface environments, vol 4. AAPG Memoir, Tulsa, pp 342–366Google Scholar
  55. Williams LB, Hervig RL, Wieser ME, Hutcheon I (2001) The influence of organic matter on the boron isotope geochemistry of the Gulf Coast sedimentary basin, USA. Chem Geol 174:445–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Worden R (1996) Controls on halogen concentrations in sedimentary formation waters. Miner Maga 60:259–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Zherebtsova II, Volkova NN (1966) Experimental study of behavior of trace elements in the process of natural solar evaporation of Black Sea Water and Sasyk-Sivash brine. Geochem Int 3:656–670Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rahim Bagheri
    • 1
  • Arash Nadri
    • 1
  • Ezzat Raeisi
    • 1
  • Ali Shariati
    • 2
  • Mahmud Mirbagheri
    • 3
  • Farahtaj Bahadori
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Earth Sciences, College of SciencesShiraz UniversityShirazIran
  2. 2.Petroleum and Chemical Engineering, College of EngineeringShiraz UniversityShirazIran
  3. 3.South Zagros Oil and Gas Company, Iranian Oil CompanyShirazIran

Personalised recommendations