Environmental Earth Sciences

, Volume 71, Issue 7, pp 3171–3180 | Cite as

Chemical evolution of a gas-capped deep aquifer, southwest of Iran

  • Rahim Bagheri
  • Arash Nadri
  • Ezzat Raeisi
  • Ali Shariati
  • Mahmud Mirbagheri
  • Farahtaj Bahadori
Original Article


The Kangan Aquifer (KA) is located below a gas reservoir in the crest of the Kangan Anticline, southwest of Iran. This aquifer is composed of Permo-Triassic limestone, dolomite, sandstone, anhydrite and shale. It is characterized by a total dissolved solid of about 332,000 mg/L and Na–Ca–Cl-type water. A previous study showed that the source of the KA waters is evaporated seawater. Chemical evolution of the KA is the main objective of this study. The major, minor and trace element concentrations of the KA waters were measured. The chemical evolution of KA waters occurred by three different processes: evaporation of seawater, water–rock and water–gas interactions. Due to the seawater evaporation process, the concentration of all ions in the KA waters increased up to saturation levels. In comparison to the evaporated seawater, the higher concentrations of Ca, Li, Sr, I, Mn and B and lower concentrations of Mg, SO4 and Na and no changes in concentrations of Cl and K ions are observed in the KA waters. Based on the chemical evolution after seawater evaporation, the KA waters are classified into four groups: (1) no evolution (Cl, K ions), (2) water–rock interaction (Na, Ca, Mg, Li and Sr ions), (3) water–gas interaction (SO4 and I ions) and (4) both water–rock and water–gas interactions (Mn and B ions). The chemical evolution processes of the KA waters include dolomitization, precipitation, ion exchange and recrystallization in water–rock interaction. Bacterial reduction and diagenesis of organic material in water–gas interaction also occur. A new type of chart, Caexcess versus Mgdeficit, is proposed to evaluate the dolomitization process.


Gas-capped aquifer Kangan gas reservoir Evaporated seawater Chemical evolution Water–rock interaction 



We extend our appreciation to the South Zagros Oil and Gas Company of Iran for their financial support of this study. The authors thank A. Montaseri, K. Bolanparvaz-Jahromi, H.R. Nasriani, Sh. Karimi and A.A. Nikandish, all from the above company, for their cooperation during data acquisition, field work, and extensive discussions of the characteristics of the Kangan Gas Reservoir. The authors also thank the Research Council of Shiraz University for continuous support during this investigation. Furthermore, the trace elements and halogen analyses were carried out at ACTLAB Laboratories (Canada), Geochemistry Laboratory (Utrecht University, the Netherlands) and Freiberg University (Germany)—for this, we extend our gratitude. The authors also thank Dr. Tiziano Boschetti, Dr. Hans Eggenkamp and an anonymous reviewer for their detailed reviews and constructive comments on the manuscript and Dr. Gunter Doerhoefer for the editorial handling.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rahim Bagheri
    • 1
  • Arash Nadri
    • 1
  • Ezzat Raeisi
    • 1
  • Ali Shariati
    • 2
  • Mahmud Mirbagheri
    • 3
  • Farahtaj Bahadori
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Earth Sciences, College of SciencesShiraz UniversityShirazIran
  2. 2.Petroleum and Chemical Engineering, College of EngineeringShiraz UniversityShirazIran
  3. 3.South Zagros Oil and Gas Company, Iranian Oil CompanyShirazIran

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