Advertisement

Environmental Earth Sciences

, Volume 71, Issue 1, pp 77–84 | Cite as

An evaluation of aquifer vulnerability in two nitrate sensitive areas of Catalonia (NE Spain) based on electrical resistivity methods

  • A. Sendròs
  • Y. Diaz
  • M. Himi
  • J. C. TapiasEmail author
  • L. Rivero
  • X. Font
  • A. Casas
Special Issue

Abstract

The protection of groundwater has become one of the most important European environmental policies as evidenced by the Orders relating to the protection of water from contamination, Directive 2000/60/CE of the European Parliament and the European Union Council, and more concretely Directive 2006/118/118/CE, related to the protection of groundwater from pollution and degradation. Traditional methods for assessing vulnerability include soil surveys, drilling and analysis of lithology logs from wells with the objective of characterising the thickness, hydraulic properties and lateral extend of the protective layers. However, such studies can be labour-intensive and expensive. In addition, the parameters measured may have high spatial variability, which makes accurate characterization over large areas difficult. Fortunately, a numerical index of protection can be assigned from the longitudinal electrical conductance parameter derived from electrical resistivity surveys (VES, ERT or any other electrical or EM method). This can be more accurate and reliable than any other vulnerability index derived only from visual inspection or interpolated from sparse borehole data.

Keywords

Vulnerability mapping Groundwater pollution Hydrogeophysics Electrical resistivity methods Catalonia (NE Spain) 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was partially supported by the Spanish Ministry for Science and Innovation through the research project “Relationships between hydrogeological and geophysical parameters for assessing aquifer vulnerability” (CGL2009-07025) and the project “Waste water treatment and reuse for a sustainable management, TRAGUA” (CSD2006-00044) in the framework of the Consolider programme.

References

  1. Aller L, Bennet T, Lehr JH, Petty RJ, Hackett G (1987) DRASTIC: a standardized system for evaluating ground water pollution potential using hydrogeologic settings. US EPA, 600/2-87–035Google Scholar
  2. Anderson LJ, Gosk E (1989) Applicability of vulnerability maps. Environ Geol Water Sci 13:39–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Casas A, Himi M, Díaz Y, Pinto V, Font X, Tapias JC (2008) Assessing aquifer vulnerability to pollutants by electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) at a nitrate vulnerable. Environ Geol 54:515–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dahlin T (1996) 2D Resistivity surveying for environmental and engineering applications. First Break 14:275–284Google Scholar
  5. Foster SSD (1987) Fundamental concepts in aquifer vulnerability, pollution risk and protection strategy: In: van Duijvenbooden W, van Waegeningh HG (eds) TNO Committee on Hydrological Research, The Hague, Vulnerability of soil and groundwater to pollutants, Proc Inf, vol 38, pp 69–86Google Scholar
  6. Henriet JP (1975) Direct applications of the Dar Zarrouk parameters in ground water surveys. Geophys Prospect 24:344–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hölting B, Haertlé Th, Hohberger KH, Nachtigall K, Villinger E, Weinzierl W, Wrobel JP (1995) Konzept zur Ermittlung der Schutzfunktion der Grundwasserüberdeckung. –Geologisches Jahrbuch, vol C 63, pp 5–24Google Scholar
  8. Kalinski RJ, Kelly WE, Bogardi I, Pesti G (1993) Electrical resistivity measurements to estimate travel times through unsaturated ground water protective layers. J Appl Geophys 30:161–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kirsch R (2006) Groundwater Geophysics. Springer, HeidelbergCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kirsch R, Sengpiel KP, Voss W (2003) The use of electrical conductivity mapping in the definition of an aquifer vulnerability index. Near Surf Geophys 1(1):13–19Google Scholar
  11. Loke MH (2002) RES2DINV ver. 3.50. Rapid 2-D resistivity and IP inversion using the least square method. Geotomo Software. Penang, MalaysiaGoogle Scholar
  12. Loke MH, Barker RD (1996) Rapid least-squares inversion of apparent resistivity pseudosections by a quasi-Newton method. Geophys Prospect 44:131–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Maillet R (1947) The fundamental equations of electric prospecting. Geophysics 12:529–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Rupert MG (2001) Calibration of the DRASTIC ground water vulnerability mapping method. Ground Water 39(4):625–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Van Stempvoort D, Ewert L, Wassenaar L (1993) Aquifer vulnerability index. A GIS-compatible method for groundwater vulnerability mapping. Can Water Resour J 18(1):25–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Sendròs
    • 1
  • Y. Diaz
    • 1
  • M. Himi
    • 1
  • J. C. Tapias
    • 2
    Email author
  • L. Rivero
    • 1
  • X. Font
    • 1
  • A. Casas
    • 1
  1. 1.Geochemistry Petrology and Geological Prospecting Department, Water Institute, Faculty of GeologyUniversity of BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Soil Science Laboratory, Water Institute, Faculty of PharmacyUniversity of BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain

Personalised recommendations