Conventional water treatments when downsized to cover the demands of small and scattered populations are costly and ineffective. In fact, many small towns cannot afford the high average treatment costs nor provide the skill and complex management requirements. Even when these facilities are available, waste water might not be properly treated. Land application system treatments (LAST) have been shown to be preferable on the basis of their technical effectiveness and financial viability. The recently approved Spanish regulations (RDL 1620/2007, pp 50369–50661) represent an opportunity for the implementation of well-designed LASTs. This paper presents an assessment methodology for the design of LASTs by combining technical, financial and location criteria. The method is applied to the design of LASTs to cover the water disposal demand of twelve municipalities located within the protected natural landscape, and surrounding areas of ‘El Rebollar’, Salamanca, Spain.
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Sanz, J.M., de Miguel, Á., de Bustamante, I. et al. Technical, financial and location criteria for the design of land application system treatment. Environ Earth Sci 71, 13–21 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-013-2685-4
- Land application system treatment
- Protected areas
- Comprehensive management
- Water reuse