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Environmental Earth Sciences

, Volume 71, Issue 5, pp 2005–2014 | Cite as

Immobilization of phosphorus, copper, zinc and arsenic in swine manure by activated red mud

  • Xianjia PengEmail author
  • Chuan Liang
  • Li Shi
Original Article
  • 449 Downloads

Abstract

Red mud (RM), the solid waste of alumina industry, is high in silicon, calcium, aluminum and iron oxides. In this study, RM was activated by heat treatment at different temperatures and characterized with BET nitrogen gas sorption, scanning electron microscopy analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis. Immobilization of phosphorus, copper, zinc, and arsenic in swine manure by activated RM was studied as a function of RM dosage, pH and time. The immobilization efficiency of phosphorus, copper, zinc and arsenic increased with the increase in RM dosage, reaching 77, 39, 42, and 78 % when the proportion of RM to swine manure was 20 %. The pH of the solution had a significant impact on the immobilization and it was found that the efficiency increased with the increase in pH. During the 24-h immobilization, the efficiency increased with time and achieved equilibrium after 12 h. Chemical variations of phosphorus, copper, zinc, and arsenic during the immobilization process were investigated with sequential chemical extraction method and the results showed that the contents of non-labile fractions of phosphorus, heavy metals and arsenic increased obviously, whereas the contents of labile fractions decreased.

Keywords

Red mud Immobilization Swine manure Phosphorus Heavy metals Arsenic 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Financial support provided by the National High Technology R&D Program (863) from Ministry of Science & Technology of China (under Grant No. 2011AA060701) and Public Industry Research for National Environmental Protection (under Grant No. 201109034) was gratefully acknowledged.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Reach Center for Eco-environmental SciencesChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

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