Environmental Earth Sciences

, Volume 71, Issue 5, pp 2005–2014 | Cite as

Immobilization of phosphorus, copper, zinc and arsenic in swine manure by activated red mud

  • Xianjia PengEmail author
  • Chuan Liang
  • Li Shi
Original Article


Red mud (RM), the solid waste of alumina industry, is high in silicon, calcium, aluminum and iron oxides. In this study, RM was activated by heat treatment at different temperatures and characterized with BET nitrogen gas sorption, scanning electron microscopy analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis. Immobilization of phosphorus, copper, zinc, and arsenic in swine manure by activated RM was studied as a function of RM dosage, pH and time. The immobilization efficiency of phosphorus, copper, zinc and arsenic increased with the increase in RM dosage, reaching 77, 39, 42, and 78 % when the proportion of RM to swine manure was 20 %. The pH of the solution had a significant impact on the immobilization and it was found that the efficiency increased with the increase in pH. During the 24-h immobilization, the efficiency increased with time and achieved equilibrium after 12 h. Chemical variations of phosphorus, copper, zinc, and arsenic during the immobilization process were investigated with sequential chemical extraction method and the results showed that the contents of non-labile fractions of phosphorus, heavy metals and arsenic increased obviously, whereas the contents of labile fractions decreased.


Red mud Immobilization Swine manure Phosphorus Heavy metals Arsenic 



Financial support provided by the National High Technology R&D Program (863) from Ministry of Science & Technology of China (under Grant No. 2011AA060701) and Public Industry Research for National Environmental Protection (under Grant No. 201109034) was gratefully acknowledged.


  1. Altundoğan HS, Tümen F (2003) Removal of phosphates from aqueous solutions by using bauxite II: the activation study. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 78:824–833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Apak R, Tutem E, Hugul M, Hizal J (1998) Heavy metal cation retention by unconventional sorbents (red muds and fly ashes). Water Res 32:430–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bao QB, Lin Q, Tian GM, Gui GH, Yu J, Peng GQ (2011) Copper distribution in water-dispersible colloids of swine manure and its transport through quartz sand. J Hazard Mater 186:1660–1666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Basta NT, McGowenb SL (2004) Evaluation of chemical immobilization treatments for reducing heavy metal transport in a smelter-contaminated soil. Environ Pollut 127:73–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Benjamin L, Turner April BL (2004) Phosphorus compounds in sequential extracts of animal manure: chemical speciation and a novel fractionation procedure. Environ Sci Technol 38:6101–6108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bolan NS, Adriano DC, Mahimairaja S (2004) Distribution and bioavailability of trace elements in livestock and poultry manure by-products. Crit Rev Env Sci Technol 34:291–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cang L, Wang YJ, Zhou DM, Dong YH (2004) Heavy metals pollution in poultry and livestock feeds and manures under intensive farming in Jiangsu Province, China. J Environ Sci 16:371–374Google Scholar
  8. Çengeloğlu Y, Kır E, Ersöz M (2002) Removal of fluoride from aqueous solution by using red mud. Sep Purif Technol 28:81–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Daumer ML, Picard S, Saint-Cast P, Dabert P (2010) Technical and economical assessment of formic acid to recycle phosphorus from pig slurry by a combined acidification–precipitation process. J Hazard Mater 180:361–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Demirer GN, Chen S (2004) Effect of retention time on and organic loading rate on anaerobic acidification and biogasification of diary manure. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 79:1381–1387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Enzo L, Zhao FJ, Zhang GY, Sun B, Walter F, Zhang H, Steve PM (2002) In situ fixation of metals in soils using bauxite residue: chemical assessment. Environ Pollut 118:435–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Erdem M, Altundoğan HS, Tümen F (2004) Removal of hexavalent chromium by using heat-activated bauxite. Miner Eng 17:1045–1052CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Haghseresht F, Huang WW, Wang SB, Zhu ZH, Li L, Yao XD, Rudolph V (2008) Phosphate removal from wastewater using red mud. J Hazard Mater 158:35–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kumpiene J, Lagerkvist A, Maurice C (2007) Stabilization of Pb and Cu contaminated soil using coal fly ash and peat. Environ Pollut 145:365–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Li YZ, Liu CJ, Luan ZK, Peng XJ, Zhu CL, Chen ZY, Zhang ZG, Fan JH, Jia ZP (2006) Phosphate removal from aqueous solutions using raw and activated red mud and fly ash. J Hazard Mater 137:374–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Li ZZ, Tang XW, Chen YM, Wang Y (2009) Behavior and mechanism of enhanced phosphate sorption on loess modified with metals: equilibrium study. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 84:595–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Liang Z, Peng XJ, Wang J, Luan ZK, Liu ZM, Wang YX (2011) Immobilization of phosphorus in sewage sludge using inorganic amendments. Environ Earth Sci 63:221–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Liang Z, Peng XJ, Luan ZK, Li WJ, Zhao Y (2012) Reduction of phosphorus release from high phosphorus soil by red mud. Environ Earth Sci 65:581–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Liu CJ, Li YZ, Luan ZK, Chen ZY, Zhang ZG, Jia ZP (2007) Adsorption removal of phosphate from aqueous solution by active red mud. J Environ Sci 19:1166–1170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ma YQ, Lin CX, Jiang YH, Lu WZ, Si CH, Liu Y (2009) Competitive removal of water-borne copper, zinc and cadmium by a CaCO3-dominated red mud. J Hazard Mater 172:1288–1296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Nouri J, Khorasani N, Lorestani B, Karami M, Hassani AH, Yousefi N (2009) Accumulation of heavy metals in soil and uptake by plant species with phytoremediation potential. Environ Earth Sci 59:315–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Rattan RK, Datta SP, Chhonkar PK, Suribabu K, Singh AK (2005) Long-term impact of irrigation with sewage effluent on heavy metal content in soils, crops and groundwater—a case study. Agric Ecosyst Environ 109:310–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Sandhya B, Tonni AK (2002) Low-cost adsorbents for heavy metals uptake from contaminated water: a review. J Hazard Mater 97:219–243Google Scholar
  24. Shan XQ, Chen B (1993) Evaluation of sequential extraction for speciation of trace metals in model soil containing natural minerals and humic acid. Anal Chem 65:802–807CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sharpley AN, Smith SJ (1985) Fractionation of inorganic and organic phosphorus in virgin and cultivated soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 49:127–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Tessier A, Campbell PGC, Bisson M (1979) Sequential extraction procedure for the speciation of particulate trace metals. Anal Chem 51:844–851CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Viktória F, Attila A, Nikolett U, Katalin G (2012) Red mud as a chemical stabilizer for soil contaminated with toxic metals. Water Air Soil Pollut 223:1237–1247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wang SB, Boyjoo Y, Choueib A, Zhu ZH (2005) Removal of dyes from aqueous solution using fly ash and red mud. Water Res 39:129–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Reach Center for Eco-environmental SciencesChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations