Environmental Earth Sciences

, Volume 71, Issue 4, pp 1683–1690 | Cite as

Geochemistry of Cd in groundwater of Winder, Balochistan and suspected health problems

  • Shahid NaseemEmail author
  • Salma Hamza
  • Syed Nawaz-ul-Huda
  • Erum Bashir
  • Qamar ul-Haq
Original Article


Sedimentary rocks of Jurassic age (Ferozabad group) and igneous rocks (Bela Ophiolite) of Cretaceous age are widely exposed in the east of Winder Town, Balochistan. Representative 48 water and soil samples were collected and analyzed for Cd and other elements. The present study showed that water samples were contaminated by the Cd ion and most of the samples have higher concentration than prescribed WHO standards (3 μg/l) for drinking purpose. The concentration of Cd ions ranged between 1 and 30 with mean values of 10 μg/l and was found high in the vicinity of outcrops. The alkaline pH (av. 7.42) was mainly responsible for elevated Cd content in the water, having near equal molar proportions of Ca and HCO3 ions. Computed relative mobility values appeared as 0.23, indicating poor leaching from rocks and metal load in the groundwater is also measured low. The estimated values of mobility reflect fairly high mobility of Cd in the study area, decreases with distance from outcrops. The health hazard indices of drinking water was high (av. 1.33) with respect to safe average daily intake of Cd. The consumption of high Cd-bearing water may induce many disorders in the human health.


Cadmium Groundwater Winder Balochistan Health problems 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shahid Naseem
    • 1
    Email author
  • Salma Hamza
    • 2
  • Syed Nawaz-ul-Huda
    • 3
  • Erum Bashir
    • 1
  • Qamar ul-Haq
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of GeologyUniversity of KarachiKarachiPakistan
  2. 2.Department of GeologyFederal Urdu University of Arts, Science and TechnologyKarachiPakistan
  3. 3.Population Census Organization, Statistics DivisionGovernment of PakistanKarachiPakistan
  4. 4.Department of ChemistryFederal Urdu University of Arts, Science and TechnologyKarachiPakistan

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