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Environmental Earth Sciences

, Volume 70, Issue 4, pp 1495–1506 | Cite as

Co-kriging for modeling shallow groundwater level changes in consideration of land use/land cover pattern

  • Jean Aurelien Moukana
  • Hisafumi AsaueEmail author
  • Katsuaki Koike
Original Article

Abstract

This study aimed at clarifying the relationship between the dynamics of land use/land cover (LULC) changes and decline in the groundwater levels, and specifying an LULC category strongly affecting such decline in a Quaternary sedimentary basin. Groundwater level data recorded at 26 observation wells for a 14-year period in the Kumamoto Plain, central Kyushu, southwest Japan, were used for the analysis. The general trends of LULC were detected by a satellite image classification technique and surface spline method, which highlighted the decreases in groundwater-recharge materials. As the next step, those trends of groundwater levels that were closely correlated with rainfall were removed from the level data set, and the resultant residual component levels were applied to co-kriging analysis with LULC categories. Co-kriging provided a detailed map of groundwater level variability. Furthermore, we propose a method, prediction of residual of groundwater level (PWL), to infer future residual groundwater levels from the supposed LULC pattern by co-kriging-based modeling. PWL was demonstrated to be effective because it clearly represented the decrease and increase in negative residual level areas, depending on the extent of rice fields in the past and in predicted future distribution scenarios.

Keywords

Groundwater level Satellite image classification Trend removal Ordinary co-kriging Kumamoto Plain 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors express their sincere thanks to Mr. Tohru Yoshinaga of the Technical Division, Faculty of Engineering, Kumamoto University, for his valuable suggestions and discussions regarding analysis of the data. Sincere thanks are extended to the Construction Ministry of Japan and the Kumamoto City Office for providing groundwater level data, and three anonymous reviewers for their valuable and constructive comments that helped improve the clarity of the manuscript.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean Aurelien Moukana
    • 1
  • Hisafumi Asaue
    • 2
    Email author
  • Katsuaki Koike
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of GeographyOmar Bongo UniversityLibrevilleGabon
  2. 2.Graduate School of Science and TechnologyKumamoto UniversityKumamotoJapan
  3. 3.Department of Urban ManagementGraduate School of Engineering, Kyoto UniversityKyotoJapan

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