Advertisement

Environmental Earth Sciences

, Volume 69, Issue 5, pp 1699–1718 | Cite as

Geochemical evolution and quality assessment of water resources in the Sarcheshmeh copper mine area (Iran) using multivariate statistical techniques

  • Hassan Sahraei Parizi
  • Nozar SamaniEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

Hydrochemical data were gathered throughout the last 12 years from 57 sampling stations in the drainage basin of the Sarcheshmeh copper mine, Kerman Province, Iran. The mean values of these data for each sampling station were used to evaluate water quality and to determine processes that control water chemistry. Principal component analyses specified the oxidation of sulfide minerals, dissolution of carbonate and sulfate minerals and weathering of silicate minerals as the principal processes responsible for the chemical composition of water in the study area. Q-mode cluster analysis revealed three main water groups. The first group had a Ca-HCO3–SO4 composition whereas the second and third groups had Ca–SO4 and Ca–Mg–SO4 composition, respectively. The results of this study clearly indicated the role of sulfide minerals oxidation and the buffering processes in the geochemical evolution of water in the Sarcheshmeh area. Due to these processes, extensive changes occurred in the chemical composition of water by passage through the mining area or waste and low-grade dumps, so that the fresh water of the peripheral area of the pit evolved to an acid water rich in sulfate and heavy metals at the outlet of the pit and in the seepages of waste and low-grade dumps.

Keywords

Iran Sarcheshmeh copper mine Principal component analysis Hierarchical cluster analysis Geochemical evolution AMD 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank National Iranian Copper Industries Company for funding this work and the personnel of the Geology and Dewatering Department of the Sarcheshmeh Copper Complex for their assistance during this project. Constructive suggestions recommended by the Editor and anonymous reviewers are greatly acknowledged.

References

  1. Akabzaa TM, Armah TEK, Baneong-Yakubo BK (2007) Prediction of acid mine drainage generation potential in selected mines in the Ashanti Metallogenic Belt using static geochemical methods. Environ Geol 52:957–964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alberto WD, Del Pilar DM, Valeria AM, Fabiana PS, Cecilia HA, De Los Angeles BM (2001) Pattern recognition techniques for the evaluation of spatial and temporal variations in water quality. A case study: Suquya River Basin (Cordoba–Argentina). Water Res 35:2881–2894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andre L, Franceschi M, Pouchan P, Atteia O (2005) Using geochemical data and modeling to enhance the understanding of groundwater flow in a regional deep aquifer, Aquitaine Basin, south-west of France. J Hydrol 305:40–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Appelo CAJ, Postama D (2006) Geochemistry, groundwater and pollution. A.A. Balkema Publishers, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  5. Azaza FH, Ketata M, Bouhlila R, Gueddari M, Riberio L (2011) Hydrogeochemical characteristics and assessment of drinking water quality in Zeuss–Koutine aquifer, southeastern Tunisia. Environ Monit Assess 174:283–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bhuiyan MAH, Suruvi NI, Dampare SB, Islam MA, Quraishi SB, Ganyaglo S, Suzuki S (2011) Investigation of the possible sources of heavy metal contamination in lagoon and canal water in the tannery industrial area in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Environ Monit Assess 175:633–649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cairney T, Frost RC (1975) A case study of mine water quality deterioration, Mainsforth colliery, county Durham. J Hydrol 25:275–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Candeias C, Ferreira da Silva E, Salgueiro AR, Pereira HG, Reis AP, Patinha C, Matos JX, Avila PH (2011) The use of multivariate statistical analysis of geochemical data for assessing the spatial distribution of soil contamination by potentially toxic elements in the Aljustrel mining area (Iberian Pyrite Belt, Portugal). Environ Earth Sci 62:1461–1479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Changul C, Sutthirat C, Padmanahban G, Tongcumpou C (2010) Chemical characteristics and acid drainage assessment of mine tailings from Akara Gold mine in Thailand. Environ Earth Sci 60:1583–1595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cloutier V, Lefebvre R, Therrien R, Savard MM (2008) Multivariate statistical analysis of geochemical data as indicative of the hydrogeochemical evolution of groundwater in a sedimentary rock aquifer system. J Hydrol 353:294–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Davis JC (2002) Statistics and data analysis in geology, 3rd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. Demirel Z, Guler C (2006) Hydrogeochemical evolution of groundwater in a Mediterranean coastal aquifer, Mersin-Erdemli basin (Turkey). Environ Geol 49:477–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Doulati-Ardejani F, Jodeiri Shokri B, Bagheri M, Soleimani E (2010) Investigation of pyrite oxidation and acid mine drainage characterization associated with Razi active coal mine and coal washing waste dumps in the Azad shahr–Ramian region, northeast Iran. Environ Earth Sci 61:1547–1560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Drever JI (1988) The geochemistry of natural waters. Prentice Hall, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  15. Everitt BS, Landau S, Leese M (2001) Cluster analysis, 4th edn. Arnold, LondonGoogle Scholar
  16. Ghorashi-Zadeh M (1978) Development of hypogene and supergene alteration and copper mineralization patterns, Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper deposit, Iran. MSc thesis, Brock University, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  17. Glynn PD, Plummer LN (2005) Geochemistry and the understanding of groundwater system. Hydrogeol J 13:263–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Grande JA, Beltran R, Sainz A, Santos JC, de la Torre ML, Borrego J (2005) Acid mine drainage and acid rock drainage processes in the environment of Herrerıas mine (Iberian pyrite belt, Huelva-Spain) and impact on the Andevalo dam. Environ Geol 47:185–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Guler C, Thyne DG (2004) Hydrologic and geologic factors controlling surface and groundwater chemistry in Indian Wells-Owens Valley area, southeastern California, USA. J Hydrol 285:177–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Guler C, Thyne GD, McCray JE, Turner K (2002) Evaluation of graphical and multivariate statistical methods for classification of water chemistry data. Hydrogeol J 10:455–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hatch (2002) Sarcheshmeh hydrogeological studies, phase 3: Conceptual pit dewatering design—hydrogeological model of mine area. Hatch Associates Pty Limited, PerthGoogle Scholar
  22. Hem JD (1985) Study and interpretation of the chemical characteristics of natural water, 3rd edn. US Geological Survey, USAGoogle Scholar
  23. Hussein MT (2004) Hydrochemical evaluation of groundwater in the Blue Nile Basin, eastern Sudan, using conventional and multivariate techniques. Hydrogeol J 12:144–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ji S, Kim S, Ko J (2008) The status of the passive treatment systems for acid mine drainage in South Korea. Environ Geol 55:1181–1194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kuroda PK, Sandell EB (1953) Chlorine in igneous rocks. Geol Soc Am Bull 64:879–896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lizarraga-Mendiola L, Gonzalez-Sandoval MR, Duran-Dominguez MC, Marquez-Herrera C (2009) Geochemical behavior of heavy metals in a Zn–Pb–Cu mining area in the State of Mexico (central Mexico). Environ Monit Assess 155:355–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lottermoser BG (2007) Mine wastes. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  28. Lu L, Wang R, Chen F, Xue J, Zhang P, Lu J (2005) Element mobility during pyrite weathering: implications for acid and heavy metal pollution at mining-impacted sites. Environ Geol 49:82–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lyew D, Sheppard J (2001) Use of conductivity to monitor the treatment of acid mine drainage by sulphate-reducing bacteria. Water Res 35:2081–2086CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Meng SX, Maynard JB (2001) Use of statistical analysis to formulate conceptual models of geochemical behavior: water chemical data from the Botucatu aquifer in São Paulo state, Brazil. J Hydrol 250:78–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mohammadi Z (2009) Assessing hydrochemical evolution of groundwater in limestone terrain via principal component analysis. Environ Earth Sci 59:429–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Moral F, Cruz-Sanjulian JJ, Olias M (2008) Geochemical evolution of groundwater in the carbonate aquifers of Sierra de Segura (Betic Cordillera, southern Spain). J Hydrol 360:281–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Morton KL, Mekerk FA (1993) A phased approach to mine dewatering. Mine Water Environ 12:27–34Google Scholar
  34. Nosrati K, Eeckhaut MVD (2011) Assessment of groundwater quality using multivariate statistical techniques in Hashtgerd Plain, Iran. Environ Earth Sci. doi: 10.1007/s12665-011-1092-y
  35. Owor M, Hartwig T, Muwanga A, Zachmann D, Pohl W (2007) Impact of tailings from the Kilembe copper mining district on Lake George, Uganda. Environ Geol 51:1065–1075CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Panda UC, Sundaray SK, Rath P, Nayak BB, Bhatta D (2006) Application of factor and cluster analysis for characterization of river and estuarine watersystems—a case study: Mahanadi River (India). J Hydrol 331:434–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Puura E, Neretnieks I (2000) Atmospheric oxidation of the pyritic waste rock in Maardu, Estonia. 2: an assessment of aluminosilicate buffering potential. Environ Geol 39:560–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Rajesh R, Brindha K, Murugan R, Elango L (2011) Influence of hydrogeochemical processes on temporal changes in groundwater quality in a part of Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Environ Earth Sci. doi: 10.1007/s12665-011-1368-2
  39. Rencher AC (2002) Methods of multivariate analysis, 2nd edn. Wiley, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rimstidt JD, Vaughan DJ (2003) Pyrite oxidation: a state-of-the-art assessment of the reaction mechanism. Geochim Cosmochim Act 67:873–880CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Romano CG, Ulrich Mayer K, Jones DR, Ellerbroek DA, Blowes WD (2003) Effectiveness of various cover scenarios on the rate of sulfide oxidation of mine tailings. J Hydrol 271:171–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sahraei Parizi H, Samani N (2009). Response of groundwater level in observational boreholes of Sarcheshmeh copper mine to rainfall. In: Proceeding of 8th international congress on civil engineering, May 11–13, 2009, Shiraz, IranGoogle Scholar
  43. Sahraei Parizi H, Nikouei MR, Babaei B (2005) Acid mine drainage at Sarcheshmeh copper mine and methods of its preventing. In: Proceeding of 20th world mining congress, 7–11 November, 2005, Tehran, IranGoogle Scholar
  44. Selection Trust (1972) Feasibility study for the Sarcheshmeh Project. Selection Trust Limited, UKGoogle Scholar
  45. Shahabpour J (1982) Aspects of alteration and mineralization at the Sarcheshmeh copper-molybdenum deposit, Kerman, Iran. PhD thesis, Leeds University, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  46. Shahabpour J, Doorandish M (2008) Mine drainage water from the Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper mine, Kerman, IR Iran. Environ Monit Assess 141(1–3):105–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Shahabpour J, Kramers JD (1987) Lead isotope data from the Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper deposit, Kerman, Iran. Miner Deposita 22:278–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Singh UK, Kumar M, Chauhan R, Jha PK, Ramanathan AL, Subramanian V (2008) Assessment of the impact of landfill on groundwater quality: a case study of the Pirana site in western India. Environ Monit Assess 141:309–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Singh CK, Shashtri S, Mukherjee S (2011) Integrating multivariate statistical analysis with GIS for geochemical assessment of groundwater quality in Shiwaliks of Punjab, India. Environ Earth Sci 62:1387–1405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tripole S, Gonzalez P, Vallania A, Garbagnati M, Mallea M (2006) Evaluation of the impact of acid mine drainage on the chemistry and the macrobenthos in the Carolina stream (Sanluis-Argentina). Environ Monit Assess 114:377–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Watterman GC, Hamilton RL (1975) The Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper deposit. Econ Geol 70:568–576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Younger PL (2003) Impacts of mining on physical hydrogeology. In: Groundwater management in mining areas. Proceedings of the 2nd IMAGE-TRAIN advanced study course. Pecs, Hungary, June 23–27, 2003Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Earth Sciences, College of SciencesShiraz UniversityShirazIran

Personalised recommendations