Advertisement

Environmental Earth Sciences

, Volume 69, Issue 5, pp 1621–1635 | Cite as

Surface evidences supporting a probable new concept for the river systems evolution in Egypt: a remote sensing overview

  • Abotalib Z. AbotalibEmail author
  • Ramadan S. A. Mohamed
Original Article

Abstract

Compilation between the previous studies about the river systems evolution and integrating them with the remotely sensed data-based landscape analysis provide a new vision to the river systems evolution in Egypt during the Cenozoic Era. Relics of geomorphologic features left in the old basins related to these rivers suggest the existence of a natural dam between Nag Hammadi City and Wadi El-Assuiti. This barrier was separating two river systems during Late Miocene time: (1) the Qena River System and (2) the newly suggested North Egypt River System. The North Egypt River is supposed to be started by the Wadi El-Assuiti drainage basin, which flowed first in a westward direction, from its source in the Eastern Limestone Plateau to continue in a northward direction across the Nile Canyon (along the course of the Nile) to join the drainage system of Wadi Tarfa and Wadi Sannur and to end, finally, in the depression of Wadi El-Natrun to constitute the Wadi El-Natrun Miocene Delta. The present interpretation on the existence of a North Egypt River System, with the presence of an old natural dam to the south of Nag Hammadi City, necessitates a revision of the concepts used for groundwater exploration in Upper Egypt.

Keywords

Remote sensing River systems Landscape analysis North Egypt River 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank prof. Ibrahim El-Kassas and Prof. Omar Cherif of National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences (NARSS) and Prof. Mohamed Sultan of Department of Geosciences, Western Michigan University for their comprehensive review and very useful comments. The authors appreciate the peer reviewers who reviewed and commented on this manuscript.

References

  1. Abdelkareem M, Ghoneim E, El-Baz F, Askalany M (2012) New insight on paleoriver development in the Nile basin of the eastern Sahara. J Afr Earth Sci 62(1):35–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abu Zied K (1987) The Geology of Wadi El Natrun, Western Desert, Egypt. M.Sc. Thesis, Cairo UniversityGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmed AA, Fawzi A (2011) Meandering and bank erosion of the River Nile and its environmental impact on the area between Sohag and El-Minia, Egypt. Arab J Geosci 4:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brookes IA (2001) Possible Miocene catastrophic flooding in Egypt’s Western Desert. J Afr Earth Sci 32:325–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Charlton R (2008) Fundamentals of fluvial geomorphology. John Wiley, Chichester, p 275Google Scholar
  6. Chumakov IS (1973) Geological history of the Mediterranean at the era of the Miocene—the beginning of the Pliocene according to new data. In: Rayan W, Hsu K et al (eds) Initial reports of Deep Sea Drilling Project. US Government Printing Office, Washington, (XIII), p 1241Google Scholar
  7. Cooke R, Warren A, Goudie A (1993) Desert geomorphology. UCL press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  8. El Araby H, Sultan M (2000) Integrated seismic risk map of Egypt. Seismol Res Lett 71:52–65Google Scholar
  9. El Bastawesy M, Ali RR, Al Harbi KH, Faid A (2012) Impact of the geomorphology and soil management on the development of waterlogging in closed drainage basins of Egypt and Saudi Arabia. Environ Earth Sci. doi: 10.1007/s12665-012-1826-5 Google Scholar
  10. El-Baz F (1982) Genesis of the great sand sea, Western desert of Egypt [C]. In: 11th international conference, Hamilton, Ontario, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  11. El-Baz F (1998) Sand accumulations and groundwater in the eastern Sahara. Episodes 21:147–151Google Scholar
  12. Ford JP, Blom RG, Crisp JA, Elachi C, Fan TG, Saunders RS, Theilig EE, Wall SD, Yewell SB (1989) Spaceborne radar observations: a guide for magellan radar-image analysis, jet propulsion laboratory publication 89–4. Pasadena, California, p 126Google Scholar
  13. Garfunkel Z (1988) Relation between continental rifting and uplifting: evidence from the Suez rift and northern Red Sea. Tectonophysics 150:33–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ghoneim E, El-Baz F (2007) The application of radar topographic data to mapping of a mega-paleodrainage in the Eastern Sahara. J Arid Environ 69(4):658–675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ghoneim E, Benedetti M, El-Baz F (2012) An integrated remote sensing and GIS analysis of the Kufrah Paleoriver, Eastern Sahara. Geomorphology 139–140:242–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Giegengack R, Smith J (2008) Morpho-stratigraphy of inverted topography in the Eastern Sahara. In: A talk given in the 3rd meeting of the Tethys Geological Society. Aswan, Egypt (abstract)Google Scholar
  17. Hsu K, Cita MB, Rayan WBF (1973) The origin of the Mediterranean evaporates. In: Rayan W, Hsu K et al (eds) Initial reports of Deep Sea Drilling Project. US Government Printing Office, Washington (XIII), pp 1203–1231Google Scholar
  18. Issawi B (1976) An introduction to the physiography of the Nile Valley. In: Wendorf F, Schild R (eds) Prehistory of the Nile Valley. Academic Press, New York, pp 3–22Google Scholar
  19. Issawi B (1983) Ancient rivers of the Eastern Egyptian Desert. Episode 2:3–6Google Scholar
  20. Issawi B and McCauley JF (1992) The Cenozoic rivers of Egypt. In: Friedman R, Adams B (eds) The Followers of Horusin Studies in Memory of M.A. Hoffman. Oxford Monograph 20, Oxbow press, Oxford, pp 121–138Google Scholar
  21. Issawi B, McCauley JF (1993) The Cenozoic Landscape of Egypt and its River System. Annals Geol. Survey Egypt 19:357–384Google Scholar
  22. Issawi B, Osman R (2008) Egypt during the Cenozoic: geological history of the Nile river. Bull Tethys Geol Soc Cairo 3:43–62Google Scholar
  23. Issawi B, El Hinnawi M, Francis M and Mazhar A (1999) The Phanerozoic Geology of Egypt. A Geodynamic Approach. Special publ. No. 76. EMRA press, Cairo, EgyptGoogle Scholar
  24. Klitszch E, List FK, Pohlmann G (1987) Geological Map of Egypt. Conoco Coral and Egyptian General Petroleum Company, Cairo, Egypt, 24 Sheets, scale 1:500,000Google Scholar
  25. Kropelin S (1993) Geomorphology, landscape evolution and paleoclimates of southwest Egypt. Catena 26:31–65Google Scholar
  26. McCauley JF, Schaber GG, Breed CS, Grolier MJ, Haynes CV, Issawi B, Elchi C, Blom R (1982) Subsurface valleys and geoarchaeology of the Eastern Sahara revealed by shuttle radar. Science 218:1004–1020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. McCauley JF, Breed C, Schaber G (1986) The megageomorphology of the radar rivers of the eastern Sahara. JPL Second Spaceborne Imaging Radar Symposium, pp 25–36Google Scholar
  28. McHugh WP, McCauley JF, Haynes V, Breed C, Schaber G (1988) Paleorivers and geoarchaeology in the southern Egyptian Sahara. Geoarchaeology 3(1):1–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mojzsis SJ, El-Baz F (1992) The Bahariya River: a paleodrainage system in the Western Desert of Egypt. In: Geology of the Arab World. Cairo University, pp 53–65Google Scholar
  30. Pritchard DW (1967) Observations of circulation in coastal plain estuaries. In: Lauff GH (ed) Estuaries American Association for the Advancement of Science, San Francisco, vol 83. Scientific Publication, pp 37–44Google Scholar
  31. Robinson C, El-Baz F, Ozdogan M, Ledwith M, Blanco D, Oakley S, Inzana J (2000) Use of radar data to delineate palaeodrainage flow directions in the Selima Sand Sheet, Eastern Sahara. Photogramm Eng Remote Sensing 66:745–753Google Scholar
  32. Said R (1981) The geological evolution of the River Nile. Springer, Berlin, p 151Google Scholar
  33. Said R (1983) Proposed classification of the Quaternary of Egypt. J Afr Earth Sci 1:41–45Google Scholar
  34. Said R (1990a) Quaternary. In: Said R (ed) The geology of Egypt. A.A Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 487–507Google Scholar
  35. Said R (1990b) Cenozoic. In: Said R (ed) The geology of Egypt. A.A Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 451–486Google Scholar
  36. Said R (1993) The River Nile; geology, hydrology and utilization. Pergamon Press, NewYork, p 320Google Scholar
  37. Said R, Wendorf F, Schild R (1970) The geology and prehistory of the Nile Valley in Upper Egypt. Archeologia Polana 13:43–60Google Scholar
  38. Strahler AN (1964) Quantitative geomorphology of drainage basins and channel networks. In: Handbook of applied hydrology. McGraw Hill Book Company, New York, Section 4–IIGoogle Scholar
  39. Thurmond AK, Stern RJ, Abdelsalam MG, Nielsen KC, Abdeen MM, Hinz E (2004) The Nubian swell. J Afr Earth Sc 39:401–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wendorf F, Schild R (1976) Prehistory of the Nile Valley. Academic Press, New York, p 404Google Scholar
  41. Youssef AM (2009) Mapping the mega paleodrainage basin using shuttle radar topography mission in Eastern Sahara and its impact on the new development projects in southern Egypt. Geospatial Inf Sci 12(3):182–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abotalib Z. Abotalib
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ramadan S. A. Mohamed
    • 2
  1. 1.Geoscience DepartmentWestern Michigan UniversityKalamazooUSA
  2. 2.Geology Department, Faculty of ScienceMinia UniversityEl-MiniaEgypt

Personalised recommendations