Skip to main content

OpenGeoSys: an open-source initiative for numerical simulation of thermo-hydro-mechanical/chemical (THM/C) processes in porous media

Abstract

In this paper we describe the OpenGeoSys (OGS) project, which is a scientific open-source initiative for numerical simulation of thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical processes in porous media. The basic concept is to provide a flexible numerical framework (using primarily the Finite Element Method (FEM)) for solving multifield problems in porous and fractured media for applications in geoscience and hydrology. To this purpose OGS is based on an object-oriented FEM concept including a broad spectrum of interfaces for pre- and postprocessing. The OGS idea has been in development since the mid-eighties. We provide a short historical note about the continuous process of concept and software development having evolved through Fortran, C, and C++ implementations. The idea behind OGS is to provide an open platform to the community, outfitted with professional software-engineering tools such as platform-independent compiling and automated benchmarking. A comprehensive benchmarking book has been prepared for publication. Benchmarking has been proven to be a valuable tool for cooperation between different developer teams, for example, for code comparison and validation purposes (DEVOVALEX and CO2 BENCH projects). On one hand, object-orientation (OO) provides a suitable framework for distributed code development; however, the parallelization of OO codes still lacks efficiency. High-performance-computing efficiency of OO codes is subject to future research.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12

References

  • Barlag C (1997) Adaptive Methoden zur Modellierung von Stofftransport im Kluftgestein. PhD Thesis, Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Hannover University

  • Bauer S (2006) Process based numerical modeling as a tool for aquifer characterization and groundwater quality evaluation. Habilitation: GeoHydrology and HydroInformatics, Center for Applied Geosciences, Tuebingen University

  • Beinhorn M (2005) Contributions to computational hydrology: Non-linear flow processes in subsurface and surface hydrosystems. PhD Thesis, GeoHydrology and HydroInformatics, Center for Applied Geosciences, Tuebingen University

  • Beyer C (2007) Applied numerical modeling of saturated / unsaturated flow and reactive contaminant transport: evaluation of site investigation strategies and assessment of environmental impact. PhD Thesis, GeoHydrology and HydroInformatics, Center for Applied Geosciences, Tuebingen University

  • Bloecher G, Zimmermann G (2008) Settle3D—a numerical generator for artificial porous media. Comput Geosci 34(12):1827–1842

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cacace M, Kaiser B, Lewerenz B (2010) Geothermal energy in sedimentary basins: what we can learn from regional numerical models. Chemie der Erde Geochem 70(3):33–46

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chen C (2006) Integrating GIS methods for the analysis of geosystems. PhD Thesis, GeoHydrology and HydroInformatics, Center for Applied Geosciences, Tuebingen University

  • de Jonge J (2004) Contributions to computational geotechnics: Non-isothermal flow in low-permeable porous media. PhD Thesis, GeoHydrology and HydroInformatics, Center for Applied Geosciences, Tuebingen University

  • Delfs JO (2010) An Euler-Lagrangian concept for transport processes in coupled hydrosystems. PhD Thesis, GeoHydrology and HydroInformatics, Center for Applied Geosciences, Tuebingen University in cooperation with Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research UFZ and Technische Universität Dresden

  • Delfs JO, Park CH, Kolditz O (2009) A sensitivity analysis of hortonian flow. Adv Water Resour 32(9):1386–1395

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Diersch H (1988) Finite-element modeling of recirculating density-driven saltwater intrusion processes in groundwater. Adv Water Resour 11(1):25–43

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Diersch HJ, Kolditz O (2002) Variable-density flow and transport in porous media: approaches and challenges. Adv Water Resour 25(8–12):899–944

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Engelhardt I (2003) Experimental and numerical investigations with respect to the material properties of geotechnical barriers. PhD Thesis, Tuebingen University

  • Flemisch B, Darcis M, Erbertseder K, Faigle B, Lauser B, Mosthaf K, Muthing S, Nuske P, Tatomir A, Wolff M et al (2011) DuMux: DUNE for multi-phase, component, scale, physics, ... flow and transport in porous media. Adv Water Resour 34(9):1102–1112

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Freiboth S, Class H, Helmig R et al (2009) A model for multiphase flow and transport in porous media including a phenomenological approach to account for deformation—a model concept and its validation within a code intercomparison study. Comput Geosci 13(3):281–300

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Görke UJ, Park CH, Wang W, Singh A, Kolditz O (2011) Numerical simulation of multiphase hydrome-chanical processes induced by CO2 injection in deep saline aquifers. Oil Gas Sci Technol 48:1–15

    Google Scholar 

  • Gronewold J (2006) Entwicklung eines Internet-Informationssystems zur Modellierung natuerlicher Rueckhalte- und Abbauprozesse im Grundwasser. PhD Thesis, GeoHydrology and HydroInformatics, Center for Applied Geosciences, Tuebingen University

  • Habbar A (2001) Direkte und inverse Modellierung reaktiver Transportprozesse in klüftig-porösen medien. PhD Thesis, Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Hannover University

  • Helmig R (1993) Theorie und Numerik der Mehrphasenstroemungen in geklueftet-poroesen Medien. PhD Thesis, Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Hannover University

  • Kaiser R (2001) Gitteradaption für die Finite-Elemente-Modellierung gekoppelter Prozesse in klüftig-porösen Medien. PhD Thesis, Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Hannover University

  • Kalbacher T (2006) Geometric modelling and 3-d visualization of hydrogeological systems: software designing and application. PhD Thesis, GeoHydrology and HydroInformatics, Center for Applied Geosciences, Tuebingen University

  • Kalbacher T, Schneider C, Wang W, Hildebrandt A, Attinger S, Kolditz O (2011) Parallelized modelling of soil-coupled 3d water uptake of multiple root systems with automatic adaptive time step control. Vadose Zone J 10:1–9. doi:10.2136/vzj2010.0099

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kohlmeier M (2006) Coupling of thermal, hydraulic and mechanical processes for geotechnical simulations of partially saturated porous media. PhD Thesis, Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Hannover University

  • Kolditz O (1990) Zur Modellierung und Simulation geothermischer Transportprozesse in untertägigen Zirkulationssystemen. Dissertation, Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin

  • Kolditz O (1995) Modelling flow and heat transfer in fractured rocks: conceptual model of a 3-d deterministic fracture network. Geothermics 24(3):451–470

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kolditz O (1996) Stoff- und Waermetransport im Kluftgestein. Habilitation: Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Hannover University

  • Kolditz O, Bauer S (2004) A process-oriented approach to computing multi-field problems in porous media. J Hydroinform 6:225–244

    Google Scholar 

  • Kolditz O, Ratke R, Diersch H, Zielke W (1998) Coupled groundwater flow and transport: 1. Verification of variable density flow and transport models. Adv Water Resour 21(1):27–46

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kolditz O, Delfs JO, Bürger C, Beinhorn M, Park CH (2008) Numerical analysis of coupled hydrosystems based on an object-oriented compartment approach. J Hydroinform 10(3):227–244

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kolditz, O, Goerke, U, Shao, H, Wang, W (eds) (2012) Benchmarks and examples for thermo-hydro-mechanical/chemical processes in Porous Media, 1st edn. Springer, Berlin

    Google Scholar 

  • Kosakowski G (2007) Transport in fractured media: concepts, models, and applications. Habilitation: GeoHydrology and HydroInformatics, Center for Applied Geosciences, Tuebingen University

  • Kroehn K (1991) Simulation von Transportvorgaengen im klueftigen Gestein mit der Methode der Finiten Elemente. PhD Thesis, Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Hannover University

  • Lege T (1995) Modellierung des Kluftgesteins als geologische Barriere fuer Deponien. PhD Thesis, Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Hannover University

  • Mayer K, MacQuarrie K (2010) Solution of the MoMaS reactive transport benchmark with MIN3P-model formulation and simulation results. Comput Geosci 14(3):405–419

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McDermott C (2006) Reservoir engineering and system analysis: hydraulic, thermal and geomechanical coupled processes in geosystems. Habilitation: GeoHydrology and HydroInformatics, Center for Applied Geosciences, Tuebingen University

  • Miles B (2007) Practical approaches to modeling natural attenuation processes at LNAPL contaminated sites. PhD Thesis, GeoHydrology and HydroInformatics, Center for Applied Geosciences, Tuebingen University

  • Moenickes S (2004) Grid generation for simulation of flow and transport processes in fractured porous media. PhD Thesis, Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Hannover University

  • Nowak T, Kunz H, Dixon D, Wang W, Görke UJ, Kolditz O (2011) Coupled 3-D thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis of geotechnical in situ tests. Int J Numer Anal Meth Geomech 48:1–15

    Google Scholar 

  • Park CH, Beyer C, Bauer S, Kolditz O (2008) A study of preferential flow in heterogeneous media using random walk particle tracking. Geosci J 12(3):285–297

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Piggott A, Bobba A, Xiang J (1994) Inverse analysis implementation of the SUTRA groundwater model. Ground Water 32(5):829–836

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Prommer H, Barry D, Zheng C (2003) MODFLOW/MT3DMS-based reactive multicomponent transport modeling. Ground Water 41(2):247–257

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pruess K (2004) The TOUGH codes—a family of simulation tools for multiphase flow and transport processes in permeable media. Vadose Zone J 3(3):738–746

    Google Scholar 

  • Reeves H, Thibodeau P, Underwood R (2000) Incorporation of total stress changes into the ground water model SUTRA. Ground Water 38(1):89–98

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rink K, Kalbacher T, Kolditz O (2011) Visual data management for hydrological analysis. Environ. Earth Sci. doi:10.1007/s12665-011-1230-6

  • Rother T (2001) Geometric modelling geo-systems. PhD Thesis, Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Hannover University

  • Rutqvist J, Barr D, Birkholzer J, Chijimatsu M, Kolditz O, Liu Q, Oda Y, Wang W, Zhang C (2008) Results from an international simulation study on coupled thermal, hydrological, and mechanical processes near geological nuclear waste repositories. Nucl Technol 163(1):101–109

    Google Scholar 

  • Schulze-Ruhfus M (1996) Adaptive Verfeinerung und Vergroeberung gekoppelter 1D/2D/3D Elemente. Diploma Thesis: Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Hannover University

  • Shao H (1994) Simulation von Stroemungs- und Transportvorgaengen im gekluefteten poroesen Medien mit gekoppelten Finite-Elementund und Rand-Element-Methoden. PhD Thesis, Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Hannover University

  • Shao H (2010) Modelling reactive transport processes in porous media. PhD Thesis, Technische Universität Dresden, Chair of Applied Environmental System Analysis, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research UFZ, Department of Environmental Informatics

  • Sudicky E, Jones J, Park Y, Brookfield A, Colautti D (2008) Simulating complex flow and transport dynamics in an integrated surface-subsurface modeling framework. Geosci J 12(2):107–122

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sun F (2011) Computational hydrosystem analysis: Applications to the meijiang and nankou catchments in china. PhD Thesis, Technische Universität Dresden, Chair of Applied Environmental System Analysis, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research UFZ, Department of Environmental Informatics

  • Sun F, Shao H, Kalbacher T, Wang W, Yang Z, Huang Z, Kolditz O (2011) Groundwater drawdown at Nankou site of Beijing Plain: model development and calibration. Environ Earth Sci 64(5):1323–1333

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tartakovsky A, Meakin P, Scheibe T (2007) Simulations of reactive transport and precipitation with smoothed particle hydrodynamics. J Comput Phys 222(2):654–672

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tenzer H (2006) Comparison of the exploration and evaluation techniques of Hot Dry Rock Enhanced Geothermal sites at Soultz-sous-Forêts and Urach Spa in the framework of the geomechanical facies concept. PhD Thesis, GeoHydrology and HydroInformatics, Center for Applied Geosciences, Tuebingen University

  • Teutsch G, Krüger (2010) Water science alliance—priority research fields. UFZ, 2010, http://www.watersciencealliance.ufz.de

  • Thorenz C (2001) Model adaptive simulation of multiphase and density driven flow in fractured and porous media. PhD Thesis, Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Hannover University

  • Walsh R (2007) Numerical modeling of THM coupled processes in fractured porous media. PhD Thesis, GeoHydrology and HydroInformatics, Center for Applied Geosciences, Tuebingen University

  • Wang W, Kolditz O (2007) Object-oriented finite element analysis of thermo-hydro-mechanical (thm) problems in porous media. Int J Numer Methods Eng 69(1):162–201

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wang W, Kosakowski G, Kolditz O (2009) A parallel finite element scheme for thermo-hydro-mechanical (thm) coupled problems in porous media. Comput Geosci 35(8):1631–1641

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wang W, Rutqvist J, Görke UJ, Birkholzer J, Kolditz O (2011) Non-isothermal flow in low permeable porous media: a comparison of Richards’ and two-phase flow approaches. Environ Earth Sci 62(6):1197–1207

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Watanabe N (2012) Finite element method for coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical processes in discretely fractured and non-fractured porous media. PhD Thesis, Technische Universität Dresden, Chair of Applied Environmental System Analysis, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research UFZ, Department of Environmental Informatics

  • White M, Oostrom M, Rockhold M (2008) Scalable modeling of carbon tetrachloride migration at the hanford site using the STOMP simulator. Vadose Zone J 7(2):654–666

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wollrath J (1990) Ein Stroemungs- und Transportmodell fuer klueftiges Gestein und Untersuchungen zu homogenen Ersatzsystemen. PhD Thesis, Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Hannover University

  • Wu Y, Wang W, Toll M, Alkhoury W, Sauter M, Kolditz O (2011) Development of a 3D groundwater model based on scarce data: the Wadi Kafrein catchment/Jordan. Environ Earth Sci 64(3):771–785

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Xie M, Bauer S, Kolditz O, Nowak T, Shao H (2006) Numerical simulation of reactive processes in an experiment with partially saturated bentonite. J Contam Hydrol 83(1–2):122–147

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Xu T, Sonnenthal E, Spycher N, Pruess K (2006) TOUGHREACT—a simulation program for non-isothermal multiphase reactive geochemical transport in variably saturated geologic media: applications to geothermal injectivity and CO2 geological sequestration. Comput Geosci 32(2):145–165

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zehner B, Watanabe N, Kolditz O (2010) Visualization of gridded scalar data with uncertainty in geosciences. Comput Geosci 36(10):1268–1275

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

We acknowledge the support of the OpenGeoSys project by following institutions: Academy of Sciences (former GDR), BGR Hannover, University of Hannover, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), Federal Ministry of Education and Science (BMBF), University of Tübingen, Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research (UFZ), Technische Universität Dresden. The authors are very grateful to Alissa Hafele for language editing this paper.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to O. Kolditz.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Kolditz, O., Bauer, S., Bilke, L. et al. OpenGeoSys: an open-source initiative for numerical simulation of thermo-hydro-mechanical/chemical (THM/C) processes in porous media. Environ Earth Sci 67, 589–599 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-012-1546-x

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-012-1546-x

Keywords

  • Porous media
  • Thermo-hydro-mechanical/chemical
  • Open-source software
  • OpenGeoSys
  • Carbon dioxide storage