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Environmental Earth Sciences

, Volume 65, Issue 1, pp 67–76 | Cite as

Spatial analysis of fluoride concentration in groundwaters of Shivani watershed area, Karnataka state, South India, through geospatial information system

  • D. C. KantharajaEmail author
  • T. K. Lakkundi
  • M. Basavanna
  • S. Manjappa
Original Article

Abstract

Hydrogeochemical investigations with emphasis on groundwater fluoride concentrations were carried out in the Shivani watershed area, Karnataka, South India. This drought-prone watershed is characterised by poor groundwater potential and is composed of different lithounits like gneisses, migmatites, tonalites, mafics–ultramafics, conglomerates and quartzites. Analysis of spatial variation of groundwater fluoride concentration through the use of GIS technology software platforms like ArcView 3.2a and MapInfo Professional 8.5 has enabled the identification of low-fluoride and high-fluoride areas within the watershed. Geochemical data indicates that 38% of groundwater samples have excessive fluoride concentration which poses a health risk to the population of the area. Correlation studies indicate that higher groundwater alkalinity activates leaching of fluoride resulting in elevated concentrations of fluoride. No other significant geochemical interrelationship could be identified between fluoride and rest of the physico-chemical parameters owing to the lack of any significant correlation coefficients. This holds good in the case of both low-fluoride (<1.5 mg/L) and high-fluoride (>1.5 mg/L) groundwaters of the watershed. However, differential or non-uniform type (positive or negative) of coefficient of correlation is observed between fluoride at different levels and other physico-chemical parameters. Among the different lithounits of the study area, gneisses house comparatively more number of high-fluoride groundwaters. Fluoride-bearing minerals biotite, hornblende and apatite are the probable natural sources of groundwater fluoride.

Keywords

Groundwater quality Fluoride Shivani GIS Spatial information 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank, The Chairman, Department of Studies in Geology, Karnatak University, Dharwad, for extending necessary facilities to carryout this work. Authors express their gratitude to Prof. Basavarajappa, Bapuji Institute of Engineering and Technology, Davanagere, for his help in carrying out groundwater analysis for fluoride and nitrate. Sincere thanks to the anonymous reviewers for undertaking thorough review, suggestions and encouragement.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. C. Kantharaja
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  • T. K. Lakkundi
    • 1
  • M. Basavanna
    • 1
  • S. Manjappa
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of GeologyKarnatak UniversityDharwadIndia
  2. 2.Department of Analytical ChemistryKuvempu UniversityDavanagere-4India
  3. 3.Guyana Geology and Mines CommissionGeorgetownSouth America

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