Damage evaluation and conservation treatment of the tenth century Korean rock-carved Buddha statues
- 286 Downloads
This study focuses on the lithological characterization, quantitative deterioration assessment and conservation treatment of the tenth century rock-carved Buddha statues in Korea. The Buddha statues were carved on light gray macrocrystalline biotite granite, and features microcline phenocrysts and pegmatite patches. The rock-forming minerals are quartz, plagioclase, microcline and biotite showing micrographic and porphyritic textures. Feldspars and biotite in the host rock have been partly altered into sericite and chlorite by weathering. The surface of the Buddha statues is remarkably irregular due to granular disintegration and the differential weathering of the quartz and microcline. In addition, horizontal and vertical cracks in the host rock have promoted mechanical weathering. Biological colonization of the statues was serious, and featured dark gray and yellowish green lichen, dark green bryophyte and some plants. The Buddha statues were evaluated as the highly weathered rock by ultrasonic survey. The lower parts under the influence of water and areas with severely broken surfaces showed a much more advanced weathering grade. Therefore, scientific conservation treatment was carried out for the long-term maintenance and conservation of the Buddha statues. After pretests, dry, wet and chemical cleanings were applied to the statues. Next, joining of cracked parts and surface consolidating were executed. Finally, the site environment was improved by installation of drain and trimming trees around the statues to ensure more stable long-term conservation.
KeywordsDeterioration assessment Conservation treatment Korean Buddha statues
This study was supported by the Research and Development Budget of National Research Institute of Cultural Heritages in Korea.
- Fitzner B (2004) Documentation and evaluation of stone damage on monuments. In: Proceedings of the 10th international congress on deterioration and conservation of stone, Stockholm, Sweden, pp 677–690Google Scholar
- Iliev IG (1966) An attempt to estimate the degree of weathering of intrusive rocks from their physico-mechanical properties. In: Proceedings of the first congress of the international society of rock mechanics, Lisbon, Portugal, vol 1, pp 109–114Google Scholar
- Jo YH, Lee CH, Jeon SW (2007) Material characteristics and deterioration assessment of the Maaebulsanggun (rock-carved Buddha statues) of Namharisaji temple site, Jeungpyeong, Korea. J Geol Soc Korea 43:501–515Google Scholar
- Kim J, Lee CH, Lee MS (2009) Quantitative deterioration assessment and microclimatic analysis of the Gyeongju Seokbinggo (Ice-storing Stone Warehouse), Korea. J Conserv Sci 25:25–38Google Scholar
- Lee CH, Lee MS, Kim YT, Kim J (2006) Deterioration assessment and conservation of a heavily degraded Korean stone Buddha from the 9th century. Stud Conserv 51:305–316Google Scholar
- May E, Lewis FJ, Pereira S, Tayler S, Seaward MRD, Allsopp D (1993) Microbial deterioration of building stone—a review. Biodeterior Abstr 7:109–123Google Scholar
- Nagano T, Nakashima S (1989) Study of colors and degree of weathering of granitic rocks by visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Geochem J 23:75–83Google Scholar
- Woo I, Park HJ (2004) Classification of weathering for the granite and granite gneiss in Okcheon belt of Jecheon, Geumsan and Gimcheon in Korea. Econ Environ Geol 37:355–364Google Scholar