Landslide susceptibility assessment using the bivariate statistical analysis and the index of entropy in the Sibiciu Basin (Romania)


The Sibiciu Basin is located in Romania between the Buzău Mountains and the Buzau Subcarpathians (Curvature Carpathians and Subcarpathians). The geology of the basin consists of Paleogene flysch deposits represented by an alternation of sandstones, marls, clays and schists and Neogene deposits represented by marls, clays and sands. The area is affected by different types of landslides (shallow, medium-deep and deep-seated failures). In Romania, in the last decades, direct and indirect methods have been applied for landslide susceptibility assessment. The most utilized before 2000 were based on qualitative approaches. This study evaluates the landslide susceptibility in the Sibiciu Basin using a bivariate statistical analysis and an index of entropy. A landslide inventory map was prepared, and a susceptibility estimate was assessed based on the following parameters which influence the landslide occurrence: slope angle, slope aspect, curvature, lithology and land use. The landslide susceptibility map was divided into five classes showing very low to very high landslide susceptibility areas.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6


  1. Bălteanu D (1983) Experimentul de teren în geomorfologie, Ed. Academiei Romane, Bucureşti, pp 157 (in Romanian)

  2. Bălteanu D, Badea L, Dinu M, Cioacă A, Sandu M, Constantin M (1994) Geomorphological hazards in the Buzau Subcarpathians, Ed. Inst de Geografie, Bucureşti, pp 24 (in Romanian)

  3. Bednarik M (2007) Landslide risk assessment as a base for land use planning. PhD thesis, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University in Bratislava, pp 130

  4. Bednarik M, Magulová B, Matys M, Marschalko M (2009) Landslide susceptibility assessment of the Kraľovany–Liptovský Mikuláš railway case study. In: Physics and chemistry of the earth, Parts A/B/C. doi:10.1016/j.pce.2009.12.002 (article in press)

  5. Bogdan O, Mihai E (1977) Ritmicitatea fenomenului inghet-dezghet in Subcarpatii Buzaului, SCGGG-Geogr, XXIV, pp 31–44 (in Romanian)

  6. Bogdan O, Niculescu E (1999) Riscurile climatice din Romania, Sega International, pp 280 (in Romanian)

  7. Brabb EE (1985) Innovative approaches to landslide hazard and risk mapping. In: Proceedings of the IVth international conference and field workshop on landslides. Tokyo, pp 17–22

  8. Carrara A, Cardinali M, Detti R, Guzzetti F, Pasqui V, Reichenbach P (1991) GIS techniques and statistical models in evaluating landslide hazard. In: Earth surface processes and landforms. 16:427–445

  9. Carrara A, Cardinali M, Guzzetti F, Reichenbach P (1995) GIS-based technology for mapping landslide hazard. In: Carrara A, Guzzetti F (eds) Geographical information systems in assessing natural hazards. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 35–175

    Google Scholar 

  10. Cioacă A, Bălteanu D, Dinu M, Constantin M (1993) Studiul unor cazuri de risc geomorfologic în Carpaţii de la Curbură, SCGGG-Geogr, XL, pp 43–57 (in Romanian)

  11. Clerici A, Perego S, Tellini C, Vescovi P (2006) A GIS-based automated procedure for landslide susceptibility mapping by the conditional analysis method: the Baganza valley case study (Italian Northern Apennines). Environ Geol 50(7):941–961

    Google Scholar 

  12. Clerici A, Perego S, Tellini C, Vescovi P (2009) Landslide failure and runout susceptibility in the upper T. Ceno valley (Northern Apennines, Italy), Natural Hazards. doi:10.1007/sl1069-009-9349-4

  13. Constantin M (2006) The landslides distribution in the Niigata region (Japan) and the Buzău Subcarpathians (Romania). Comparative regional study. Civil Eng J 48(4):52–57 (in Japanese)

    Google Scholar 

  14. Constantin M (2006) Prognoza alunecarilor de teren. Abordari Actuale, Ed.AGIR, Bucuresti, pp99 (in Romanian)

  15. Constantin M (2008) The landslide susceptibility assessment in Romania. A review of regional approaches. In: Proceedings of the international conference on management of landslide hazard in the Asia-Pacific Region, satellite symposium of the first world landslide forum, 11–15 November 2008, Sendai, Japan, The Japan Landslide Society, pp 510–518

  16. Constantin M, Rotaru A, Nishimoto H, Yamakoshi T (2005) Geomorphological hazards in Romania. Some examples from the area situated at the contact between Buzău Carpathians and Buzău Subcarpathians. J Jpn Soc Erosion Control Eng 58(1):59–62 (in Japanese)

    Google Scholar 

  17. Glade T (2001) Landslide hazard assessment and historical landslide data-an inseparable couple. The use of historical data in natural hazards assessment. Kluwer, Netherlands, pp 153–168

    Google Scholar 

  18. Guzzetti F, Carrara A, Cardinali M, Reichenbach P (1999) Landslide hazard evaluation; a review of current techniques and their application in a multi-scale study, Central Italy. Geomorphology 37(1–2):181–216

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Guzzetti F, Reichenbach P, Ardizzone F, Cardinali M, Galli M (2006) Estimating the quality of landslide susceptibility models. Geomorphology 81:166–184

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Ielenicz M (1984) Muntii Ciucas-Buzau. Studiu geomorfologic., Ed. Academiei, pp 146 (in Romanian)

  21. Ielenicz M, Patru I, Mihai B (1999) Some geomorphologic types of landslides in Romania, Transactions, Japanese Geomorphological Union, 20–23, Tokyo. Romane, pp 287–299

  22. Moreiras S (2005) Landslide susceptibility zonation in the Rio Mendoza valley, Argentina. Geomorphology 66:345–357

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Paudits P, Bednarik M (2002) Using GIS in evaluation of landslide susceptibility in Handlovská Kotlina Basin. In: Rybář J, Stemberk J, Wagner P (eds) Proceedings of the 1st European conference on landslide. Swets and Zeitlinger, Lisse, Praha, Czech Republic, 24–26th of June, 2002, pp 437–441. ISBN 90-5809-393 X

  24. Soeters R, Van Westen CL (1996) Slope instability, recognition, analysis, and zonation. In: Turner AK, Schuster RL (eds) Landslides: investigation and mitigation. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, pp 129–177

  25. Sorriso-Valvo M (2002) Landslides: from inventory to risk. Landslides, Balkema, Rotterdam

  26. van Westen CJ (2004) Geo-information tools for landslide risk assessment: an overview of recent developments. In: Lacerda W, Ehrlich M, Fontoura SAB, Sayao ASF (eds) Landslides: evaluation and stabilization. Taylor and Francis Group, Balkema, London, pp 39–57

  27. Varnes DJ, Intern. Association of Engineering Geology Commission on Landslides and Other Mass Movements on Slopes (1984) Landslide hazard zonation: a review of principles and practice, UNESCO, Paris, pp 63

  28. Vlcko J, Wagner P, Rychlikova Z (1980) Evaluation of regional slope stability. Mineralia Slovaca 12(3):275–283

    Google Scholar 

Download references


The present study was supported by the Ministry of Education and Research through the grant in aid PNII-IDEI_367 (2007–2010) funded through The National University Research Council of Romania (CNCSIS). The kind cooperation with Department of Engineering Geology, Comenius University, Bratislava, is fully appreciated.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mihaela Constantin.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Constantin, M., Bednarik, M., Jurchescu, M.C. et al. Landslide susceptibility assessment using the bivariate statistical analysis and the index of entropy in the Sibiciu Basin (Romania). Environ Earth Sci 63, 397–406 (2011).

Download citation


  • Landslide susceptibility
  • Bivariate statistical analysis
  • Index of entropy
  • Sibiciu Basin
  • Buzău Mountains
  • Romania