Characterization of indoor and outdoor atmospheric pollutants impacting architectural monuments: the case of San Jerónimo Monastery (Granada, Spain)
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- Kontozova-Deutsch, V., Cardell, C., Urosevic, M. et al. Environ Earth Sci (2011) 63: 1433. doi:10.1007/s12665-010-0657-5
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Indoor and outdoor concentrations of atmospheric gaseous pollutants as well as composition, size, and morphology of particulate matter have been investigated at the monastery of San Jerónimo in Granada (Southern Spain). Complementary micro- and nano-analytical techniques were applied; elemental and mineralogical composition and morphological characteristics of particulate matter were investigated combining electron probe microanalysis at the single particle level, and bulk aerosol samples were analyzed using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analyzer and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Microclimatic conditions at the monastery were monitored, and gas concentrations were assessed by means of diffusion tubes subsequently analyzed with ion chromatography. Results revealed high abundances of soil dust particles (aluminosilicates, calcite, dolomite, quartz), salt aerosols (chlorides, sulfates and ammonium-rich salts), and NO2 and SO2 both outdoors and indoors. Amorphous black carbon particles had surprisingly high abundances for Granada, a non-industrialized city. The composition of indoor particles corresponds to severe weathering affecting the construction materials and artworks inside the church; moreover their composition promotes a feedback process that intensifies the deterioration. Chemical reactions between chloride-rich salts and pigments from paintings were confirmed by TEM analyses. Indoors, blackening of surface decorative materials is fostered by particle re-suspension due to cleaning habits in the monastery (i.e. dusting). This is the first air quality study performed in a monument in the city of Granada with the aim of developing a strategy for preventive conservation.