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Environmental Earth Sciences

, Volume 61, Issue 7, pp 1401–1417 | Cite as

Analysis of the degree of contamination and evolution in the last 100 years of the composition of the bed sediments of the Anllóns Basin

  • Rosa Devesa-ReyEmail author
  • M. T. Barral
  • J.-M. Jouanneau
  • F. Díaz-Fierros
Original Article

Abstract

In this study, five cores of the Anllóns River bed sediments were analyzed in order to evaluate the downcore and downstream variations in their chemical composition. The first step was the evaluation of the metal distribution in the bulk (<2 mm) and fine fractions (<63 μm). The analysis revealed that most of the metals followed the same trend in both fractions, although the fine fraction presented usually higher concentrations. However, the concentration of both fractions tended to equalize with increasing contamination. No general increase was observed in the metal concentrations toward the surface which could be attributed to recent anthropogenic contributions. Instead, the distributions were homogeneous or peaked at various depths downcore. The most important historical feature was observed at the mouth of the river, at 96-cm depth, corresponding to the end of the eighteenth century. Upcore increased metal concentrations in parallel with increased fine fraction occurred from this depth, which were attributed to a bridge construction and consequent changes in sediment dynamics. As the metal concentrations can be influenced by variations in texture or other sediment characteristics, the second step was to evaluate the efficiency of several normalized indexes in the assessment of the degree of contamination, by calculating the enrichment factor (EF), the geoaccumulation index (I GEO) and the pollution load index (PLI). The EFs obtained were <10, thus revealing little anthropogenic inputs to the basin. The I GEO produced higher values when compared with the EFs. Instead of absolute EF or I GEO absolute values, the use of cumulative probability plots allowed identifying more accurately potential outliers indicating contamination. Only one population was identified for Zn and Pb, with a reduced number of outliers at the highest concentrations for Pb. As shown, a more complex plot with the outliers identified at C4 and C5. Finally, the PLI allowed determining the absence of a significant contamination in the bed sediments. The bioavailable and non-geogenic fractions contribute up to a 90% of the total concentrations in the case of As and Cu, and showed similar (dissimilar) profiles in comparison with total metals. Also, the quality guidelines were surpassed, so the high solubility of As, Zn, Pb and Ni in the sediments revealed the need to monitor the bed sediment quality of the Anllóns River.

Keywords

Sediments Cores Organic carbon Heavy metals 210Pb 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The Science and Education Ministry of Spain (MEC, REN 2003-08673/CGL2007-62928) financed the present study.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rosa Devesa-Rey
    • 1
    Email author
  • M. T. Barral
    • 1
  • J.-M. Jouanneau
    • 2
  • F. Díaz-Fierros
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de Edafología y Química Agrícola, Facultad de FarmaciaUSCSantiago de CompostelaSpain
  2. 2.Département de Géologie et OcéanographieUMR 5805 Environnements et Paléoenvironnements Oceaniques (EPOC)Talence CedexFrance

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