Advertisement

Environmental Earth Sciences

, Volume 61, Issue 5, pp 983–993 | Cite as

Environmental status of the metropolitan river (Kifissos) of Athens, Greece

  • Ioannis Panagiotopoulos
  • Vasilios Kapsimalis
  • Ioannis Hatzianestis
  • Theodore D. KanellopoulosEmail author
  • Chara Kyriakidou
Original Article

Abstract

Surficial and sub-surficial sediments obtained from the lower course of the Kifissos River, which drains the Athens Basin, have been analyzed for heavy metals and aliphatic and polycyclic hydrocarbons. Oddly, the calculated enrichment factors for the identified heavy metals, with the baseline taken from a pristine area in the adjacent Saronikos Gulf, are very low excluding only those related to Cu and Zn. In contrast, the enrichment factors for the measured hydrocarbons are particularly high. However, physicochemical water conditions and annual flushing episodes of the Kifissos River may have reduced significantly the sediment chemical fingerprint found out by the present study. Moreover, an evaluation of the fluvial sediment quality based on the enriched Cu and Zn amounts and concentration of PAH fraction with a consideration of the biological thresholds proposed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (USA) reveals little probability for serious biological impairments. Additionally, sediment toxicity due to the sediment PAH load may be considered as minimum.

Keywords

Urban river Sediment Heavy metals Hydrocarbons Saronikos Gulf 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The financial support provided by the Greek Ministry of Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works is greatly appreciated. Also the authors are grateful for the laboratory assistance provided by Α. Papageorgiou, Μ. Τaxiarchi, G. Kampouri, C. Pyrgaki, Ε. Plakidi and Β. Stasinos.

References

  1. Ackermann F (1980) A procedure for correcting grain-size effect in heavy metal analysis of estuarine and coastal sediments. Environ Technol Lett 1:518–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aloupi M, Angelidis MO (2001) Normalization to lithium for the assessment of metal contamination in coastal sediment cores from the Aegean Sea, Greece. Mar Environ Res 52:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cappuyns V, Swennen R (2004) Secondary mobilisation of heavy metals in overbank sediments. J Environ Monit 6:434–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cotou E, Gremare A, Charles F, Hatzianestis I, Sklivagou E (2005) Potential toxicity of resuspended particulate matter and sediments: environmental samples from the Bay of Banyuls-sur-Mer and Thermaikos Gulf. Cont Shelf Res 25:2533–2553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dahle S, Savinov V, Petrova V, Klungsoyr J, Savinova T, Batova G, Kursheva A (2006) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Norwegian and Russian Arctic marine sediments: concentrations, geographical distribution and sources. Norw J Geol 86:41–50Google Scholar
  6. De Miguel E, Charlesworth S, Ordonez A, Seijas E (2005) Geochemical fingerprints and controls in the sediments of an urban river: River Manzanares, Madrid (Spain). Sci Total Environ 340:137–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. European Environmental Agency (2005) CORINE land cover 2000. http://www.eea.europa.eu/themes/landuse/clc-download
  8. Folk RL (1974) Petrology of sedimentary rocks. Hemphill Publications Company, TexasGoogle Scholar
  9. Forstner U, Wittman GT (1983) Metal pollution in the aquatic environment, 2nd edn. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Gogou A, Bouloubassi I, Stephanou EG (2000) Marine organic geochemistry of the Eastern Mediterranean: 1. Aliphatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in Cretan Sea surficial sediments. Mar Chem 68:265–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Grousset FE, Quetel CR, Thomas B, Donard OFX, Lambert CE, Guillard F, Monaco A (1995) Anthropogenic vs. lithogenic origins of trace elements (As, Cd, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sn, Zn) in water column particles: northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Mar Chem 48:291–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Karageorgis AP, Hatzianestis I (2003) Surface sediment chemistry in the Olympic Games 2004 Sailing Center (Saronikos Gulf). Mediterr Mar Sci 4(1):5–22Google Scholar
  13. Karageorgis AP, Anagnostou CL, Kaberi H (2005) Geochemistry and mineralogy of the NW Aegean Sea surface sediments: implications for river runoff and anthropogenic impact. Appl Geochem 20:69–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lipiatou E, Tolosa I, Simo R, Bouloubassi I, Dachs J, Marti S, Sicre MA, Bayona JM, Grimalt JO, Saliot A, Albaiges J (1997) Mass budget and dynamics of PAH in the western Mediterranean Sea. Deep Sea Res 44:881–905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lubecki L, Szymczak-Zyla M, Kowalewska G (2006) Methylphenanthrenes in the southern Baltic as markers of petrogenic pollution. Oceanologia 48(1):73–86Google Scholar
  16. Luoma SN (1990) Processes affecting metal concentrations in estuarine and coastal marine sediments. In: Furness RW, Rainbow PS (eds) Heavy metals in the marine environment. CRC Press, Florida, pp 51–66Google Scholar
  17. Mat I, Maah MJ (1994) Sediment trace metal concentrations from the mudflats of Kuala Juru and Kuala Muda of Malaysia. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 53:740–746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mazurek MA, Simoneit BRT (1984) Characterization of biogenic and petroleum-derived organic matter in aerosols over remote, rural and urban areas. In: Keith LH (ed) Identification and analysis of organic pollutants in air. Ann Arbor Science, Boston, pp 353–370Google Scholar
  19. Michael S, Mclachlan GC, Frank W (2002) The influence of vertical sorbed phase transport on the fate of organic chemicals in surface soils. Environ Sci Technol 36:4860–4867CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Nadal M, Schuhmacher M, Domingo JL (2004) Levels of PAHs in soil and vegetation samples from Tarragona County, Spain. Environ Pollut 132:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Old GH, Leeks GJL, Packman JC, Stokes N, Williams ND, Smith BPG, Hewitt EJ, Lewis S (2007) Dynamics of sediment-associated metals in a highly urbanised catchment: Bradford, West Yorkshire. Water Environ J 18(1):11–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ou S, Zheng J, Zheng J, Richardson BJ, Lam PKS (2004) Petroleum hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the surficial sediments of Xiamen Harbour and Yuan Dan Lake, China. Chemosphere 56(2):107–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Page DS, Boehm PD, Douglas GS, Bence AE, Burns WA, Mankiewicz PJ (1999) Pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments record past human activity: a case study in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Mar Pollut Bull 38(4):247–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pavlidou A, Hatzianestis I, Sklivagou E, Papadopoulos V, Zervakis V (2002) Hydrology and pollution assessment in a coastal estuarine system. The case of Strymonikos Gulf (North Aegean Sea). Mediterr Mar Sci 3(1):65–78Google Scholar
  25. Peters CA, Knightes CD, Brown DG (1999) Long-term composition dynamics of PAH-containing NAPLs and implications for risk assessment. Environ Sci Technol 33:4499–4507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Qiao M, Wang C, Huang S, Wang D, Wang Z (2006) Composition, sources, and potential toxicological significance of PAHs in the surface sediments of the Meiliang Bay, Taihu Lake, China. Environ Int 32:28–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Savinov VM, Savinova TN, Matishov GG, Dahle S, Naes K (2003) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorines (OCs) in bottom sediments of the Guba Pechenga, Barents Sea, Russia. Sci Total Environ 306:39–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Singh KP, Malik A, Sinha S, Singh VK, Murthy RC (2005) Estimation of source of heavy metal contamination in sediments of Gomti River (India) using principal component analysis. Water Air Soil Pollut 166:321–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sklivagou E, Varnavas SP, Hatzianestis J, Kanias G (2008) Assessment of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and trace elements in coastal sediments of the Saronikos Gulf, Greece (eastern Mediterranean). Mar Georesour 26:372–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. UNEP/IOC/IAEA (1992) Determination of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments. Reference methods for marine pollution studies. No. 20Google Scholar
  31. UNEP/MED POL (2000) Guidelines for the management of dredged material. MAP Technical Report Series, No. 129Google Scholar
  32. Van der Weijden CH (2002) Pitfalls of normalization of marine geochemical data using a common divisor. Mar Geol 184:167–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Widianarko B, Verweij RA, Van Gestel CAM, Van Straalen NM (2000) Spatial distribution of trace metals in sediments from urban streams of Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia. Ecotox Environ Saf 46:95–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ye B, Zhang Z, Mao T (2007) Petroleum hydrocarbons in surficial sediment from rivers and canals in Tianjin, China. Chemosphere 68(1):140–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Yunker MB, Macdonald RW, Vingarzan R, Mitchell RH, Goyette D, Sylvestre S (2002) PAHs in the Fraser River basin: a critical appraisal of PAH ratios as indicators of PAH source and composition. Org Geochem 33:489–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ioannis Panagiotopoulos
    • 1
  • Vasilios Kapsimalis
    • 1
  • Ioannis Hatzianestis
    • 1
  • Theodore D. Kanellopoulos
    • 1
    Email author
  • Chara Kyriakidou
    • 1
  1. 1.Hellenic Centre for Marine ResearchInstitute of OceanographyAtticaGreece

Personalised recommendations