Environmental Earth Sciences

, Volume 61, Issue 2, pp 393–403 | Cite as

Prediction of swelling pressure of soil using artificial intelligence techniques

  • Sarat Kumar Das
  • Pijush Samui
  • Akshaya Kumar Sabat
  • T. G. Sitharam
Original Article


The swelling pressure of soil depends upon various soil parameters such as mineralogy, clay content, Atterberg’s limits, dry density, moisture content, initial degree of saturation, etc. along with structural and environmental factors. It is very difficult to model and analyze swelling pressure effectively taking all the above aspects into consideration. Various statistical/empirical methods have been attempted to predict the swelling pressure based on index properties of soil. In this paper, the computational intelligence techniques artificial neural network and support vector machine have been used to develop models based on the set of available experimental results to predict swelling pressure from the inputs; natural moisture content, dry density, liquid limit, plasticity index, and clay fraction. The generalization of the model to new set of data other than the training set of data is discussed which is required for successful application of a model. A detailed study of the relative performance of the computational intelligence techniques has been carried out based on different statistical performance criteria.


Expansive soil Swelling pressure Artificial neural network Support vector machine 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sarat Kumar Das
    • 1
  • Pijush Samui
    • 2
  • Akshaya Kumar Sabat
    • 3
  • T. G. Sitharam
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringNational Institute of TechnologyRourkelaIndia
  2. 2.Department of Civil EngineeringTampere University of TechnologyTampereFinland
  3. 3.Department of Civil EngineeringKIIT UniversityBhubaneswarIndia
  4. 4.Indian Institute of ScienceBangloreIndia

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