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Prevalence of extraintestinal manifestations in ulcerative colitis and associated risk factors



The data on prevalence of extraintestinal manifestations (EIM) in ulcerative colitis (UC) are  scanty and highly variable.


Consecutive patients with UC were prospectively evaluated from November 2016 to August 2017. A detailed history was obtained and physical examination was done. Presence of EIM was confirmed by a consultant rheumatologist, ophthalmologist and dermatologist. Tests performed were hemogram, liver function test, abdominal ultrasound, slit lamp examination, X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging when deemed necessary.


A total of 227 patients with UC were enrolled in this study. The prevalence of EIM was 7.92%. Mucocutaneous (4.84%) manifestations were the commonest, followed by musculoskeletal (1.32%) and ocular (0.88%). Hepatobiliary (0.44%) and vascular (0.44) manifestations were present in equal frequency. History of appendicectomy was associated with  EIM.


The prevalence of EIM in UC was low in our study. History of appendicectomy was a risk factor for EIM.

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Correspondence to Krishn Kant Rawal.

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KKR, VPS, SC, MT, MR, and RKC declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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The study was performed in a manner to conform to the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000 and 2008 concerning human and animal rights, and the authors followed the policy concerning informed consent as shown on

The study was conducted after obtaining proper ethical clearance from the ethics committee.


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Rawal, K.K., Shukla, V.P., Chikani, S. et al. Prevalence of extraintestinal manifestations in ulcerative colitis and associated risk factors. Indian J Gastroenterol 40, 477–482 (2021).

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  • Aphthous ulcer
  • Appendicectomy
  • Crohn’s disease
  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Mayo classification
  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis
  • Spondyloarthritis
  • Thrombosis
  • Uveitis