Indian Journal of Gastroenterology

, Volume 34, Issue 3, pp 225–232 | Cite as

Dietary food groups intake and cooking methods associations with pancreatic cancer: A case–control study

  • Zeinab Ghorbani
  • Azita Hekmatdoost
  • Hassan Eini Zinab
  • Solmaz Farrokhzad
  • Roya Rahimi
  • Reza Malekzadeh
  • Akram PourshamsEmail author
Original Article



The role of dietary habits in the etiology of pancreatic cancer (PC) has not yet been well elucidated.


The aim of the present study was to examine the association of the frequency of different food groups’ intake and their cooking methods with PC risk based on a well-designed case–control study.


A case–control study including 307 PC patients and 322 controls referred to four tertiary endosonography centers was conducted from January 2011 to January 2014 to compare the frequency intake of different food items and their cooking methods between cases and controls.


After adjustment for gender, age, body mass index, years of education, diabetes and alcohol history, smoking status, and opium use, a significant direct relationship was observed between PC risk and intake frequency (time/week) of bread (OR = 1.50; 95 % CI 1.05–2.13; p-value 0.024), rice (OR = 2.10; 95 % CI 1.15–3.82; p for trend 0.034), and red meat (OR = 2.25; 95 % CI 1.22–4.14; p for trend 0.033) (time/day), when comparing the highest category of intake frequency with the lowest, while increasing frequency of fish consumption was associated with a lower risk of PC (OR = 0.93; 95 % CI0.59–1.47; p for trend 0.009). Increasing consumption of barbecuing red meat and deep fried vegetables was associated with 67 % and 70 % increased risk of PC (p-value 0.025 and 0.006, respectively).


Our results indicate that increased frequency of intake of bread, rice, and red meat (especially barbecued) and deep fried vegetables can aggregate PC risk, while increased frequency of fish consumption can protect against PC. However, more studies are still needed.


Case–control study Cooking methods Dietary factors Pancreatic neoplasms 


Conflict of interest

ZGh, AH, HEZ, SF, RR, RM, and AP declare no conflict of interest related to this work.

Ethics statement

The authors declare that the survey was performed in a manner that conforms to the Declaration of Helsinki of 1975, as revised in 2000 and 2008, concerning human and animal rights and that the authors followed the policy concerning informed consent wherever applicable as shown in


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Copyright information

© Indian Society of Gastroenterology 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zeinab Ghorbani
    • 1
    • 2
  • Azita Hekmatdoost
    • 1
  • Hassan Eini Zinab
    • 3
  • Solmaz Farrokhzad
    • 2
  • Roya Rahimi
    • 2
  • Reza Malekzadeh
    • 2
  • Akram Pourshams
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Technology, National Nutrition and Food TechnologyResearch Institute Shahid Beheshti University of Medical ScienceTehranIran
  2. 2.Digestive Disease Research Institute, Shariati HospitalTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Community Nutrition, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Technology, National Nutrition and Food TechnologyResearch Institute Shahid Beheshti University of Medical ScienceTehranIran

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