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A study of gender-wise risk association between fatty liver and metabolic syndrome components (Asia-Pacific criteria) in a South Indian urban cohort

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Metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with fatty liver (FL) disease. Gender differences in this association are not known.


The aim of the present study was to determine gender-wise association between FL and MS components (using Asia-Pacific guidelines 2007) in an urban south Indian cohort with normal liver function tests (LFT).


Records of consecutive attendees of a Master Health Check up program were reviewed for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, fasting blood sugar (FBS), high-density lipoproteins, triglyceride (TG) levels, presence of FL by ultrasound. The cohort was grouped gender-wise as FL and nonfatty liver (NFL). Foreign nationals; those with alcohol intake >20 g/day; and those with diabetes, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, chronic liver disease, or abnormal LFT were excluded.


Chi-square, gender-wise univariate and logistic regression analyses of each MS component for FL, relative risk (RR), and 95 % confidence interval (CI) for significant factors (p < 0.05 and RR or log odds >1.5) were calculated.


Of the 1,075 (63 % males) cases included, 45.8 % had FL. Gender (log odds 1.6 compared to women) and BMI ≥25 kg/m2 (RR 1.6 % to 95 % CI 1.3 to 1.9; log odds 2.2) were the only factors associated with FL in men. In women, age ≥40 years (log odds 2.3), fasting blood sugar (FBS) ≥100 mg/dL (RR 1.8–1.4 to 2.3; log odds 1.9), and TG ≥150 mg/dL (RR 1.7–1.3 to 2.1; log odds 1.7) were independently associated with FL.


There was a gender-wise difference in MS components associated with hepatic steatosis and normal LFT in a south Indian urban cohort.

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Conflict of interest

MS, VS, MBM, JV, and JV affirm that they have no conflicts of interest to declare.

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The study was performed in a manner to conform with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000 and 2008 concerning Human and Animal Rights, and the authors followed the policy concerning Informed Consent as shown on

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Correspondence to M. Srinivas.

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Srinivas, M., Srinivasan, V., Mohan, M.B. et al. A study of gender-wise risk association between fatty liver and metabolic syndrome components (Asia-Pacific criteria) in a South Indian urban cohort. Indian J Gastroenterol 34, 38–42 (2015).

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