Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery

, Volume 17, Issue 2, pp 169–174 | Cite as

Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Maxillofacial Injuries in Brazil, a 5-year Retrospective Study

  • Luciana Domingues Conceição
  • Isadora Augusta da Silveira
  • Gustavo Giacomelli Nascimento
  • Rafael Guerra Lund
  • Ricardo Henrique Alves da Silva
  • Fábio Renato Manzolli Leite
Research Paper



The etiology and epidemiology of maxillofacial injuries varies widely in different regions of the world due to socioeconomic status, cultural aspects in addition to road traffic and drug consumption. The aim of this study is to determine major causes and epidemiological characteristics of maxillofacial trauma in a 5-year period.

Materials and methods

Reports of corporal trauma (n = 25,632) from 2007 to 2011 in the Department of Forensic Medicine were analyzed as to the presence of maxillofacial injuries. Data were submitted to Chi square test and to multivariate Poisson regression.


3262 reports referred maxillofacial trauma. The majority were men (55.8%), single (68.9%), most of them white (75.7%). The average age was 28.9 years (SD = 8.42), and victims with age between 16 and 30 years old were the most affected (48.0%). Women comprised 44% of total sample, 67.8% (971) were single, 76% (1.076) white and 46% (691) aged between 16 and 30 years old. Middle third injuries were associated after adjustment with females (PR 1.05; 95% CI 1.01–1.11), non-white subjects (PR 1.06; 95% CI 1.01–1.12) and physical aggression (PR 1.07; 95% CI 1.02–1.13). Injuries in the oral region was more prevalent in men (PR 1.24; 95% CI 1.09–1.41), in those aged between 16 and 30 (PR 1.97; 95% CI 1.48–2.61) and in subjects with injuries caused by traffic accident (PR 1.21; 95% CI 1.02–1.44). The presence of injuries in the lower third of face remained associated in the final model only with traffic accident (PR 1.75; 95% CI 1.43–2.15).


Health care practitioners must recognize vulnerable population and most prevalent sites of lesion to identify cases of violence.


Domestic violence Violence against women Forensic dentistry Forensic medicine Maxillofacial injury 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

L. D. Conceição, I. A. da Silveira, G. G. Nascimento, R. G. Lund, R. H. A. da Silva, F. R. M. Leite state that there are no conflicts of interest. No funding supported this study. All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975 (in its most recently amended version).


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Copyright information

© The Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons of India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luciana Domingues Conceição
    • 1
  • Isadora Augusta da Silveira
    • 1
  • Gustavo Giacomelli Nascimento
    • 1
    • 4
  • Rafael Guerra Lund
    • 1
    • 4
  • Ricardo Henrique Alves da Silva
    • 2
  • Fábio Renato Manzolli Leite
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Restorative Dentistry, Dental SchoolFederal University of PelotasPelotasBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Stomatology, Public Health and Forensic Dentistry, School of Dentistry of Ribeirão PretoUniversity of São Paulo (USP)Ribeirão PrêtoBrazil
  3. 3.Department of Semiology and Clinics, Dental SchoolFederal University of PelotasPelotasBrazil
  4. 4.Faculdade de Odontologia de Pelotas – Programa de Pós-Graduação em OdontologiaPelotasBrazil

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