Skip to main content


Log in

Growth Factor Measurement and Histological Analysis in Platelet Rich Fibrin: A Pilot Study

  • Research Paper
  • Published:
Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery Aims and scope Submit manuscript



The aim of this study was to compare growth factor amount contained in platelet rich fibrin (PRF) and compare with that in platelet rich plasma (PRP), and in whole blood. And also to investigate distribution of growth factors and cellular components in PRF.

Materials and Methods

PRF and PRP were obtained from the same sample of peripheral blood. Extraction of proteins were done with lysis buffer, accompanied by freeze and thaw procedures. Concentration of two representative growth factors in platelets: platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). PRF was cut into three parts: (top, middle and bottom), and growth factor concentration was measured respectively. Paraffin embedded section of PRF was observed with Giemsa stain. Immuno-histochemical analysis with anti-PDGF and anti-TGF-β antibodies was also conducted.


The growth factor levels in PRF was higher than in peripheral blood and comparable to those in PRP. Growth factor levels in bottom part of PRF was much higher than in top and middle part. Microscopically, platelets and mono-nucleated cells were concentrated just above the yellow–red interface. Poly-nucleated cells were concentrated below the interface.


The growth factors were surely concentrated in PRF. This result can support basis of good clinical outcomes. For effective application of PRF, the knowledge that growth factors and cells are not equally distributed in PRF should be utilized.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. Ross R (1979) Platelets: cell proliferation and atherosclerosis. Metabolism 28:410–414

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Assoian RK, Komoriya A, Meyers CA et al (1983) Transforming growth factor-beta in human platelets. Identification of a major storage site, purification, and characterization. J Biol Chem 258:7155–7160

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Marx RE, Carlson ER, Eichstaedt RM et al (1998) Platelet-rich plasma: growth factor enhancement for bone grafts. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 85:638–646

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Eppley BL, Woodell JE, Higgins J (2004) Platelet quantification and growth factor analysis from platelet-rich plasma: implications for wound healing. Plast Reconstr Surg 114:1502–1508

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Wiltfang J, Kloss FR, Kessler P et al (2004) Effects of platelet-rich plasma on bone healing in combination with autogenous bone and bone substitutes in critical-size defects. An animal experiment. Clin Oral Implants Res 15:187–193

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Crovetti G, Martinelli G, Issi M et al (2004) Platelet gel for healing cutaneous chronic wounds. Transfus Apher Sci 30:145–151. doi:10.1016/j.transci.2004.01.004

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Oyama T, Nishimoto S, Tsugawa T, Shimizu F (2004) Efficacy of platelet-rich plasma in alveolar bone grafting. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 62:555–558

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Choukroun J, Adda F, Schoeffler CVA (2001) Une opportunité en paro-implantologie: le PRF. Implantodontie 42:55–62

    Google Scholar 

  9. Dohan DM, Choukroun J, Diss A et al (2006) Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF): a second-generation platelet concentrate. Part I: technological concepts and evolution. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 101:e37–e44. doi:10.1016/j.tripleo.2005.07.008

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Saluja H, Dehane V, Mahindra U (2011) Platelet-Rich fibrin: a second generation platelet concentrate and a new friend of oral and maxillofacial surgeons. Ann Maxillofac Surg 1:53–57. doi:10.4103/2231-0746.83158

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Sharma A, Pradeep AR (2011) Treatment of 3-wall intrabony defects in patients with chronic periodontitis with autologous platelet-rich fibrin: a randomized controlled clinical trial. J Periodontol 82:1705–1712. doi:10.1902/jop.2011.110075

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Ruga E, Gallesio C, Boffano P (2011) Platelet-rich fibrin and piezoelectric surgery: a safe technique for the prevention of periodontal complications in third molar surgery. J Craniofac Surg 22:1951–1955. doi:10.1097/SCS.0b013e31822ea76b

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Chignon-Sicard B, Georgiou CA, Fontas E et al (2012) Efficacy of leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin in wound healing: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Plast Reconstr Surg 130:819e–829e. doi:10.1097/PRS.0b013e31826d1711

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Singh A, Kohli M, Gupta N (2012) Platelet rich fibrin: a novel approach for osseous regeneration. J Maxillofac Oral Surg 11:430–434. doi:10.1007/s12663-012-0351-0

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Girish Rao S, Bhat P, Nagesh KS et al (2013) Bone regeneration in extraction sockets with autologous platelet rich fibrin gel. J Maxillofac Oral Surg 12:11–16. doi:10.1007/s12663-012-0370-x

    Article  PubMed Central  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Dohan DM, Choukroun J, Diss A et al (2006) Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF): a second-generation platelet concentrate. Part II: platelet-related biologic features. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 101:e45–e50. doi:10.1016/j.tripleo.2005.07.009

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Nishimoto S, Oyama T, Matsuda K (2007) Simultaneous concentration of platelets and marrow cells: a simple and useful technique to obtain source cells and growth factors for regenerative medicine. Wound Repair Regen 15:156–162. doi:10.1111/j.1524-475X.2006.00196.x

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Pluemsakunthai W, Kuroda S (2013) A basic analysis of platelet-rich fibrin: distribution and release of platelet-derived growth factor-BB. Inflammation and Regeneration. doi: 10.2492/inflammregen.33.164

  19. Margolis J (1957) Initiation of blood coagulation by glass and related surfaces. J Physiol 137:95–109

    Article  PubMed Central  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Ratnoff OD, Rosenblum JM (1958) Role of Hageman factor in the initiation of clotting by glass; evidence that glass frees Hageman factor from inhibition. Am J Med 25:160–168

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Wilner GD, Nossel HL, LeRoy EC (1968) Activation of Hageman factor by collagen. J Clin Invest 47:2608–2615. doi:10.1172/JCI105943

    Article  PubMed Central  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references


No funding was received for the preparation of this article. The authors have no financial interest in any of the products or devices mentioned in the article.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Soh Nishimoto.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Nishimoto, S., Fujita, K., Sotsuka, Y. et al. Growth Factor Measurement and Histological Analysis in Platelet Rich Fibrin: A Pilot Study. J. Maxillofac. Oral Surg. 14, 907–913 (2015).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: