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Cardiometabolic and perceptual responses to different forms of interval training in patients with type 2 diabetes

Kardiometabolische und Wahrnehmungsreaktionen auf verschiedene Formen des Intervalltrainings bei Patienten mit Typ-2-Diabetes



There is solid evidence about the impact of interval training on glycemic control and related risk factors. However, the optimum form and intensity of this interval training, best fitting with the individual needs of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), needs more research and investigation.


The objective of this study was to compare the effect of 12 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) versus moderate-intensity interval training (MIIT) on functional capacity (as a cardiorespiratory parameter) glucose control, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (as metabolic parameters) in T2D patients, and to test exercise acceptability in these patients.


In all, 60 participants had been recruited for this study. Their ages ranged from 40–65 years. They were randomly divided into two equal groups: the HIIT group, who participated in the HIIT program, and the MIIT group, who engaged in the MIIT program. Both groups received 12 weeks of training. Outcomes included 6‑min walking distance (6MWD), fasting blood glucose (FBG), and HbA1c levels before and after the study, with the physical activity enjoyment scale (PACES), which was completed by the patients by the end of the study, testing the exercises’ enjoyment.


In the HIIT and MIIT groups, there was a significant reduction of FBG (17.6%, 14.1%) and HbA1c (21.3%, 13.6%) and an increased 6MWD (10.3%, 6.4%) and PACES score (93.4 ± 14.5, 55.7 ± 13.6), respectively (P < 0.05).


HIIT could be implemented as an effective, enjoyable, time-efficient, and acceptable exercise intervention in T2D. It is more effective at both the physical and perceptual levels than the MIIT.

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Correspondence to Hady Atef.

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H. Atef, T. Muka and A.A. Abd El-Hameed declare that they have no competing interests.

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants or on human tissue were in accordance with the ethical standards of the research ethics committee for the Faculty of Physical Therapy at Cairo University, Egypt (ID: P.T.REC/012/003205) and with the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) guidelines. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

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Clinical trial was in (NCT04759469).

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Atef, H., Muka, T. & Abd El-Hameed, A.A. Cardiometabolic and perceptual responses to different forms of interval training in patients with type 2 diabetes. Ger J Exerc Sport Res (2022).

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  • High-intensity interval training
  • Moderate-intensity interval training
  • Physical activity
  • Exercise enjoyment
  • Diabetes mellitus