Altersspezifische Anpassungen an ein Dehntraining

Eine metaanalytische Betrachtung

Age-specific adaptations by stretching exercises

A meta-analysis

Zusammenfassung

Bei Personen in höherem Lebensalter kommt es u. a. aufgrund degenerativer Veränderungen des aktiven und passiven Bewegungsapparates zu einer verringerten Beweglichkeit. Aus diesem Grund wird für ältere Personen ein Dehntraining empfohlen. Im Rahmen einer systematischen Literaturrecherche konnte anhand von 42 Primärstudien gezeigt werden, dass bislang nur vereinzelte Befunde zu den Anpassungserscheinungen durch ein Dehntraining bei Personen in höherem Lebensalter existieren. Der überwiegende Anteil an Trainingsstudien wurde mit jungen Probanden durchgeführt. Weiterhin beschäftigten sich die Studien zumeist mit der Veränderung einer maximalen Beweglichkeit durch ein Dehntraining. Weitere biomechanische Untersuchungen, wie die Veränderung der Dehnungsspannungskurve, sind nur vereinzelt zu finden und fehlen bei Studien mit älteren Personen fast völlig. Die Befunde aus der systematischen Literaturrecherche und anschließenden metaanalytischen Betrachtung konstatieren, dass ältere Personen ihre Beweglichkeit ähnlich gut durch ein Dehntraining beeinflussen können wie jüngere Personen. Allerdings benötigen ältere Personen zum Erreichen ähnlich großer Effektstärken tendenziell längere Trainingsphasen. Ältere Personen profitieren außerdem eher von einer längeren Dehndauer über 30 s. Des Weiteren profitieren Ältere von einer Eigendehnung und einer submaximalen Dehnintensität. Es besteht nach wie vor ein Forschungsdefizit, da bisher nur eine Studie existiert, in der Anpassungserscheinungen nach einem langzeitigen Dehntraining zwischen jüngeren und älteren Erwachsenen konkret verglichen wurde. Diese ist allerdings aufgrund ihres Erscheinungsdatums nicht in die Metaanalyse eingeflossen.

Abstract

Flexibility is reduced in older people due to, among other things, degenerative changes of the musculoskeletal system. For this reason, stretching exercises are recommended for older people. Based on 42 primary studies identified in a systematic review, only isolated findings on the influence of stretching exercises on adaptation phenomena in older people are available. The majority of training studies were conducted with young subjects. Furthermore, the studies were mostly concerned with changes in maximum range of motion by stretching. Further biomechanical examinations, such as changes in the stress-strain curve, can only be found in isolated cases and studies with older persons are almost nonexistent. The findings from the systematic review and subsequent meta-analysis reveal that older persons can also influence their flexibility by stretching exercises as much as younger people can. However, older people tend to require longer exercise phases to reach similar effect sizes. Older persons also benefit from a stretching longer than 30 s. In addition, older people benefit from self-stretching and submaximal stretching intensity. There is still a lack of research given that there has been only one study to date specifically comparing adaptation phenomena following long-term stretching training between young and old adults. However, this study was not included in the meta-analysis due to its date of publication.

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Abb. 1

Notes

  1. 1.

    Beispiel einer Suchanfrage über PUBMED: (stretch OR „muscle stretch“ OR stretching OR „muscle stretching“) AND (rom OR „range of motion“ OR „joint range“) NOT strength NOT balance NOT osteoarthritis NOT contracture NOT parkinson NOT „multiple sclerosis“ NOT fibromyalgia NOT yoga NOT „tai chi“ NOT injury NOT surgery.

  2. 2.

    Beispiel für maximale Dehnintensität: „maximal tolerable stretch“ (Hayes et al., 2012); „point of maximal tolerance“ (La Roche & Connolly, 2006).

  3. 3.

    Beispiel für submaximale Dehnintensität: „point of discomfort“ (Yuktasir & Kaya, 2009); „maximum stretching tension without pain“ (Batista et al., 2009).

  4. 4.

    Zum Zeitpunkt der Einreichung dieses Manuskriptes waren unsere Daten zu einer empirischen Untersuchung noch nicht veröffentlicht. Es existiert nun aber doch eine Studie, die nach einem langzeitigen Dehntraining Anpassungserscheinungen zwischen jüngeren und älteren Erwachsenen vergleicht, siehe Haab und Wydra (2017).

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Danksagung

Die Autoren bedanken sich bei zwei unbekannten Gutachtern für hilfreiche Anmerkungen.

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Correspondence to Thomas Haab M.Sc..

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T. Haab, J. Martini, S. Baluktsian und G. Wydra geben an, dass kein Interessenkonflikt besteht.

Dieser Beitrag beinhaltet keine von den Autoren durchgeführten Studien an Menschen oder Tieren.

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Haab, T., Martini, J., Baluktsian, S. et al. Altersspezifische Anpassungen an ein Dehntraining. Ger J Exerc Sport Res 47, 371–384 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12662-017-0464-1

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Schlüsselwörter

  • Dehntraining
  • Muskeldehnung
  • Lebensalter
  • Alternsgang
  • Metaanalyse

Keywords

  • Flexibility
  • Muscle stretching
  • Age
  • Aging
  • Meta-analysis