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Basic motor competencies of fifth graders

Construct validity of the MOBAK-5 test instrument and determinants

Motorische Basiskompetenzen in der fünften Klasse

Validität des MOBAK-5-Testinstruments und Determinanten

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Abstract

Basic motor competencies are understood as functional performance dispositions that can be learned and retained in the long term. They ensure that students are qualified to participate in the culture of sport and exercise. Support for basic motor competencies plays an important role in the school subject physical education. In this article we present the operationalization of basic motor competencies for the fifth grade (MOBAK-5). In a validation study (N = 438 children; 55% girls; M = 11.25 years, SD = 0.49), we tested the construct validity of the MOBAK-5 test instrument and identified determinants of basic motor competencies. We calculated an exploratory structural equation model (CFI = 0.99; RMSEA = 0.024) and a confirmatory factor analysis (CFI = 0.95; RMSEA = 0.041) with the eight MOBAK-5 test items. Both analyses confirm that the MOBAK-5 test instrument has the same two-factor structure with the factors self-movement and object movement as that found in previous studies for the analogously constructed MOBAK-1 and MOBAK-3 test instruments. We studied differential and determining influences on basic motor competencies by integrating covariates—gender, age, and BMI as well as frequency and type of physical activity outside school. Boys performed better on object movement, while girls performed better on self-movement. Age showed low significant influences. BMI was inversely related to the basic motor competencies, whereas physical activity outside school had an effect on the basic motor competencies. The confirmation of the two-factor structure and the correlations with external criteria provide initial evidence for the construct and criterion validity of the MOBAK-5 test instrument.

Zusammenfassung

Motorische Basiskompetenzen werden als nachhaltig erlernbare und funktionale Leistungsdispositionen verstanden. Sie gewährleisten, dass Schülerinnen und Schüler qualifiziert an der Sport- und Bewegungskultur teilnehmen können. Im Schulfach Sport nimmt die Förderung dieser motorischen Basiskompetenzen einen zentralen Stellenwert ein. Im vorliegenden Beitrag wird die Operationalisierung der motorischen Basiskompetenzen für die fünfte Jahrgangsstufe (MOBAK-5) dargestellt. Im Rahmen einer Validierungsstudie (N = 438 Kinder; 55% Mädchen; M = 11,25 Jahre, SD = 0,49) wurde die Konstruktvalidität des MOBAK-5-Testinstruments geprüft sowie Determinanten der motorischen Basiskompetenzen identifiziert. Mit den 8 MOBAK-5-Testitems wurden ein exploratorisches Strukturgleichungsmodell (CFI = 0,99; RMSEA = 0,024) und eine konfirmatorische Faktorenanalyse (CFI = 0,95; RMSEA = 0,041) berechnet. Beide Analysen bestätigten die 2‑faktorielle Struktur des MOBAK-5-Testinstruments mit den Faktoren Sich-Bewegen und Etwas-Bewegen, wie sie bereits bei früheren Studien für die vergleichbaren, analog konstruierten MOBAK-1- und MOBAK-3-Testinstrumente nachweisbar waren. Durch die Integration von Kovariaten – Geschlecht, Alter und BMI sowie Häufigkeit und Art von außerschulischer Sportaktivität – in die konfirmatorische Faktorenanalyse wurden differenzielle und determinierende Einflüsse auf die motorischen Basiskompetenzen untersucht. Jungen erreichten bessere Werte im Etwas-Bewegen, während Mädchen bessere Werte im Sich-Bewegen erreichten. Das Alter zeigte geringe, signifikante Einflüsse. Der BMI stand in einem inversen Verhältnis zu den motorischen Basiskompetenzen, wohingegen sich außerschulische Sportaktivität auf die motorischen Basiskompetenzen auswirkte. Die Bestätigung der 2‑faktoriellen Struktur sowie die Zusammenhänge mit Außenkriterien gaben erste Hinweise auf die Konstrukt- und Kriteriumsvalidität des MOBAK-5-Testinstruments.

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Correspondence to Christian Herrmann.

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C. Herrmann and H. Seelig declare that they have no competing interests.

The study was approved by the Directorate of Education, Culture, and Sport of the Canton Basel-Landschaft.

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Herrmann, C., Seelig, H. Basic motor competencies of fifth graders. Ger J Exerc Sport Res 47, 110–121 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12662-016-0430-3

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