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Unsupervised multi-modal representation learning for affective computing with multi-corpus wearable data

Abstract

There has been a growing focus on the use of artificial intelligence and machine learning for affective computing to further enhance user experience through emotion recognition. Typically, machine learning models used for affective computing are trained using manually extracted features from biological signals. Such features may not generalize well for large datasets. One approach to address this issue is to use fully supervised deep learning methods to learn latent representations. However, this method requires human supervision to label the data, which may be unavailable. In this work we propose an unsupervised framework for representation learning. The proposed framework utilizes two stacked convolutional autoencoders to learn latent representations from wearable electrocardiogram and electrodermal activity signals. The representations learned from this unsupervised framework are subsequently utilized within a random forest model to classify arousal. To validate this framework, an aggregation of the AMIGOS, ASCERTAIN, CLEAS, and MAHNOB-HCI datasets is created. The results of our proposed method are compared with other methods including convolutional neural networks, as well as methods that employ manual extraction of features. We show that our method outperforms current state-of-the-art results. The results show the wide-spread applicability for stacked convolutional autoencoders to be used for affective computing.

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Data availability

The AMIGOS dataset analysed during the current study is available in the AMIGOSdataset repository, http://www.eecs.qmul.ac.uk/mmv/datasets/amigos/in-dex.html. The ASCERTAIN dataset is available in the Multimedia and Human Understanding Group repository, http://mhug.disi.unitn.it/wp-content/ASCERTAIN/as-certain.html#/. The MAHNOB-HCI dataset is available in the HCI Tagging Database repository, https://mahnob-db.eu/hci-tagging/. The CLEAS dataset is available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

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Acknowledgements

The authors would like to acknowledge the Canadian Department of National Defense who partially funded this work. I also want to thank Pritam Sarkar, Dr. Dirk Rodenburg, Dr. Aaron Ruberto, Dr. Adam Szulewski, and Dr. Daniel Howes for their collaborations thorough this study.

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Ross, K., Hungler, P. & Etemad, A. Unsupervised multi-modal representation learning for affective computing with multi-corpus wearable data. J Ambient Intell Human Comput 14, 3199–3224 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12652-021-03462-9

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